2 Define acids and bases in terms of the three definitions: ArrheniusBronsted and LowryLewisDefine AmphotericIdentify and label conjugate pairs.
3 ACIDS BASES Taste bitter Feel slippery Turn red litmus blue Taste sourBurn when touching skin.Turn blue litmus red.Neutralize basic solutions.Corrosive to metalsstrong or weak electrolytesBASESTaste bitterFeel slipperyTurn red litmus blueNeutralize acidic solutionsstrong or weak electrolytes
4 Acids – Compounds that yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution. Arrhenius DefinitionAcids – Compounds that yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution.Bases – Compounds that yield OH- ions in aqueous solution.Svante Arrhenius ( )yes, this is really him...looks happy, eh?
6 NH3 ~ no OH– ? The Bronsted-Lowry Theory 20 years later: baseLowry~ no OH– ?The Bronsted-Lowry Theory20 years later:An acid is a proton (H+) donor.A base is a proton (H+) acceptor.Bronsted
7 NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) Base is a proton (H+) acceptor: Ammonia accepts a proton from water:H+NH3 (g) + H2O(l)NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)acceptor
8 H+ and H3O+ are written interchangeably. Acids is a proton (H+) donor:H+HCl (g) + H2O(l)H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)donoracceptorResult is the H3O+ ion called the hydronium ion.H+ and H3O+ are written interchangeably.H+NH3 (g) + HCl(g)NH4+(g) + Cl-(g)
9 Bicarbonate ion is also amphoteric. A substance which can act as either an acid or a base is described as being amphoteric.Water is amphoteric.Bicarbonate ion is also amphoteric.H+HCO OH-CO H2OdonoracceptorH+HCO H2OH2CO3 + OH-acceptordonor
10 Gilbert Lewis Definition Acids and bases accept and donate electrons, NOT protons.Lewis acids accept (keep) electrons.Lewis bases donate (lose) electrons.H+CH3COO-(aq) + H2O(l) OH-(aq) + CH3COOH (aq)baseacid
11 Transition metal ions with charges of 2+ or 3+, create an acidic solution with water. Step 1: Formation of a hydrate.
12 Step 2: Loss of H+ making acidic solution. Fe(H2O)63+ + H2O H3O+ + Fe(H2O)5(OH)2+H+H
13 NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) Conjugate acid is what remains after a base has accepted a proton.Conjugate base is what remains after the acid has donated its proton.NH3 (g) + H2O(l)NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)baseacidCon. acidCon. base
14 B + H2O BH+ + OH- HA + H2O H3O+ + A- Each is called a conjugate pair. baseacidCon. acidCon. baseHA H2OH3O A-acidbaseCon. acidCon. base
15 Arrhenius defined acids as substances which release H+ ions in water and bases as substances which release OH¯ ions in water.Bronsted and Lowry defined acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors.Substances that behave as BOTH acids and bases, these are called amphoteric.An acid and its conjugate base or a base and its conjugate acid are known as conjugate pairs.
16 CAN YOU / HAVE YOU?Define acids and bases in terms of the three definitions:ArrheniusBronsted and LowryLewisDefine AmphotericIdentify and label conjugate pairs.