2ai An Approach to ^ Change appreciative inquiry ACCELERATED How many have heard of Ai? Or used it?It is essentially an approach to accelerated change and it’s fair to say that Appreciative Inquiry is applied in many different ways.Our focus today is on whole system change, following the Summit methodology. For LSI/ individual focus, think of the individual as a whole system……But first, a bit of an intro and background:At it’s very core Ai requires us to inquire into the times when we, or our organisations, are at our best (most energised, most effective) and apply what we learn to the change we are trying to create.I always come back to the fundamental question of ”‘what makes you come alive?”‘Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of the Imagination’ – Watkins & Mohr, 2001
3PROBLEM ANALYTIC CHANGE VS. APPRECIATVE INQUIRY This is the slide you find in the texts to answer the ‘so how is it different’ questionProblem solving(deficit based change)Appreciative inquiry(strength based innovation)“Felt Need”Identify problem“Valuing the best of what is”AppreciateConduct root cause analysisImagine (What might be)Analyze Possible Solutions(Dialogue and designWhat should be)Create (What will be)Develop action plan (Treatment)Basic assumption: “mystery”organization is a web of strengths linked to infinite capacity, infinite imagination… aliveBasic assumption:“problem-to-be solved”
4Change - Traditional approach vs Ai The burning platform / what is wrong?Executive/ Senior leaders agree the solution (define the new beginning/vision); workshop the strategy (over a period of time)Project team formed to implement and lead the changeCommunication Plan & campaign developed to engage all stakeholders and drive desired responses/ behavioursMeasurementThe business opportunity/what do we want to create?The whole system is invited to co-create the future – full voice and personal investmentThe change begins ‘in the moment’ and continues as an integrated strategyFollow-up in the form of progress checks, and support, where requiredMeasurementThis one is based on my expereince in organisations and the work I have traditionally done in OD and employee communications rolesIn my experience, it is the most powerful and sustainable way to affect a whole system shift. We all bring different experiences and beliefs. I’m not here to convince you, simply to introduce you, spark some interest so we can explore together.Ai is a way of working that supports collaboration and really does bring out the best in people and systems…….
51. valuing; the act of recognising the best in people or the world around us; affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; to perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, excellence) to living systems2. to increase in valueappreciatesynonyms: esteeming, valuing, honouring1. the act of exploration and discovery2. to ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilitiesinquiresynonyms: discovery, search, study, systematic explorationIf we look at the root of the words…
6want to take with us/ what Transition model‘Managing Transitions’ – William BridgesEndingsLetting go: what do wewant to take with us/ whatwill serve us?ConfusionCreativityNeutral ZoneNewBeginningsThe change/futurewe envisionBridges explains that Change is situational/ externalTransition is the pschycological process/ the internal – the way that people come to terms with the change that is occurringNew beginnings - Typically in organisations we go straight to the new beginningsExplain the rest of the model……….The Point?In my experience the Ai Summit process provides a mechanism for a painless way to do the endings: “what do we want to take with us?”The process takes people through the creative phase.Confusion still occurs, but it is a lot less, it is accelerated and the letting go happens before your eyes.
7“Ai is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organisations, and the world around them.It involves systematic discovery of what gives a system “life” when it is most effective and capable in economic, ecological, and human terms.”David Cooperrider was the originator of Ai as an approach to org Change & development – it came out of an experiment he conducted when he was a PhD student working with a team responsible for Org Change in a hospital in the States.This is how he defines AiDavid CooperriderCase Western Reserve University
8vocabularies of human deficit are the opiates of the masses “I’m not good enough”“They are to blame”“We have lost”“I am depressed”“The organization is hopeless””My family is dysfunctional”“What is your problem?”“It’s your fault”“I am a bad person”“You are wrong!”“I will never be able to”“That was a mistake”“It is a disaster!”“I don’t have enough”“You are a failure”“There is a lack of ……..”David Cooperrider is one of the founders of Appreciative InquiryA take on karl marx’s claim that religion is the opiate of the masses (1843 work translated from German)Cooperrider himself is very spiritual and is a Brahma Kumaris – a spiritual organisation committed to self transformation through meditation and positive thinking
9Assumptions of Ai In every organisation/ situation – something works What we focus on, and the language we use, becomes our realitySustainable action is more likely from a place of positivityThe act of asking questions begins the changeMoving forward is easier when we bring forward the best parts of the past – when we pay attention to the positive core
10aiThe 5-D CycleDESTINY Innovation Improvisation and Inquiry. Expand all learning CompetenciesDESIGN Invent the initiatives and the social architecture which will make your dreams inevitableDREAM Envision the impact & internal functioning as if those insights and the Positive Core were fully aliveDISCOVER Conduct the inquiry, share insights and capture the Positive CoreDEFINE Decide what to learn about, how and who to involve in each phaseThe methodology of Ai (as opposed to the philosophy)
11ai summitDVDShow you what a summit can look like. This one is perhaps ‘high-end’: nice venue, balloons, video, etc. but they don’t have to be such an event – many are incredibly simple and modestWatch out for the 4 D’s (not define) so you can get a feel for what happens in each phase.
12aiThe 5-D CycleDESTINY Innovation Improvisation and Inquiry. Expand all learning CompetenciesDESIGN Invent the initiatives and the social architecture which will make your dreams inevitableDREAM Envision the impact & internal functioning as if those insights and the Positive Core were fully aliveDISCOVER Conduct the inquiry, share insights and capture the Positive CoreDEFINE Decide what to learn about, how and who to involve in each phaseThe methodology of Ai (as opposed to the philosophy)
13ai summitInterviewShow you what a summit can look like. This one is perhaps ‘high-end’: nice venue, balloons, video, etc. but they don’t have to be such an event – many are incredibly simple and modestWatch out for the 4 D’s (not define) so you can get a feel for what happens in each phase.
14Transformative topics “If you find and inquire into the most powerful topics, you will find the system’s wisdom written on the wall”. Sallie LeeThe key is to find the topic that has the potential to transform…… when you get it right, the system does the rest…..OCI will give you a lot of insight into this and highlight areas on which to focus. But it’s also important to follow your intuition as a good consultant…..“what are you most curious about?”“what do you most want to see more of?”
15positive coreIt is the collective wisdom, knowledge, strategies, attitudes, skills and capabilities of the organization at its best.Often undiscussed, an organization's positive core is a source of life-giving potential, consisting of all its creative, life-affirming qualities, capabilities, and resources.It is the essence of the organization at its best: its remembered past, its enacted present, and its imagined future.Diana WhitneyCorporation for Positive ChangeThe positive core comes from the discovery phase and is what underpins the foundations of the change – it is the essence
16Some organisations using ai ANZBoeingBritish PetroleumRACUS National Intelligence CommunityAllstateSmith Kline BeechamWalmartThe Inspire FoundationNextelGreen Mountain Coffee RoasterBritish AirwaysRoadway ExpressAmerican Red CrossNewark Beth Israel Medical CenterGeorgia PacificBritish GasWorld VisionSome organisations using ai
17Positive Image Positive Action What we ask determines what we findWhat we find determines how we talkHow we talk determines how we imagine togetherHow we imagine determines what we achieve togetherA nice overview that captures the intention and purpose of Ai
185 PrinciplesSocial Constructionism: Human systems are made and imagined by those who live and work in them. Our reality and meaning are socially createdSimultaneity: Change begins the moment we ask questionsPoetic: (poets are not constrained) We have no boundaries on what we can inquire and learn from. Everything is open to reinterpretationAnticipatory: Our behavior in the present is influenced by the future we anticipatePositive: The more positive the question and conversation, the longer-lasting the changeThese are theoretical principles in which Ai is groundedThe critical ones – are Social Constructionism and Positivity.“Our organizations evolve in the direction of the images we create based on the questions we ask as we strive to understand the systems at work.”
19Appreciative Intelligence See the positive in a given situationReframe a given situationAct now – seeing how the future unfolds from the present“Seeing the mighty oak in the acorn” – Tojo Thatchenkery & Carol MetzkerThe notion of Appreciative Intelligence has been coined – in the vein of Emotional Intelligence, Social Intelligence
20Outputs from the Summit process TangibleWhole system shift in the one directionClear, shared directionA new story for the organisation (re-story)A re-focus/ concentration of effortAction Plans (short term & long term)New ideasNew energy and enthusiasmCurrent activities & processes enhanced‘Double-up’ dramatically reduced - streamlinedCollaborationAccountabilityIndividuals invested in what the business doesOwnership of actions & outcomes at all levelsSelf-organised workgroupsDesigned for sLess tangible/ emergentNetworks developedInformal relationships formedIndividuals feel acknowledgedSense of belongingIndividual confidence = more robust systemSense of achievementSelf-awareness in a groupEmergence of strengthsParticipants understand their role in the big pictureMutual appreciation & respectSense of purpose & connectionStrategic thinking at all levelsA more positive outlookA desire (&ability) to find the possibilities in a situationAppreciation for the power of inquiry & genuine curiosityInnovation
21Case study - SBB Sales Staff retention (Belonging and Balance) Passion Question: What do you want more of?Answer: GrowthSalesStaff retention (Belonging and Balance)PassionThis team were leaders in the segment – Rob’s team were beginning to be poached, grass is greener…..; fear of burn outNot wanting to be complacentWanting growth and ensuring market leadershipInquiry into: passion; superior customer service; work-life balance
22“I am convinced that AI enabled us to signiﬁcantly increase our sales ﬁgures the following year and caused a real and strong sense of oneness despite the geographical spread of our staff.”When I sat down with Rob 6 months later…….Sales have doubled; people have stayed; we will have gone from 180 to 280 people (in one year!) and I put that down to the Summit; accommodating the rapid expansionWhen I asked him to go on record to promote the workshops we are running……..Rob Goudswaard, Managing Director ANZ Regional, Rural & Small Business Banking
23References Recommended texts Ludema, Whitney, Mohr & Griffin (2003). The appreciative Inquiry summit – a practitioners guide for leading large-group change. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.Watkins & Mohr (2001). Appreciative Inquiry. Change at the speed of the imagination. Jossey-Bass/PfeifferThatchenkery & Metzker (2006). Appreciative Intelligence. Seeing the mighty oak in the acorn. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.There are loads of Ai texts. These ones are specific to understanding what Ai is and how to run a SummitRecommended websitesAi commons:Ai Practitioner: