Presentation on theme: "Using Appreciative Inquiry to Build Evaluation Capacity"— Presentation transcript:
1Using Appreciative Inquiry to Build Evaluation Capacity
2ObjectivesUnderstand the basic principles of Appreciative Inquiry (AI)Understand the structures and processes in building evaluation capacityExperience the first phase of AIExplore how AI can be applied in building evaluation capacity in own contextIntroduce own introduction to AIMention methods to be used:Mini-lectures (5-10 minutes)Small group workDiscussionsSupplementary materials
3Methods Mini-lectures Individual reflections Small group discussions Large group discussions
5Appreciative Inquiry“is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations, and the world around them. It involves systematic discovery of what gives a system ‘life’ when it is most effective and capable in economic, ecological, and human terms…the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen a system’s capacity to apprehend, anticipate, and heighten positive potential.”Cooperrider & Whitney, 1999Cooperrider, D.L. & Whitney, D. (1999). “Appreciative Inquiry: A positive revolution in change.” In P. Holman & T. Devane (eds.), The Change Handbook, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., pages
6Appreciative Inquiry“is the study and exploration of what gives life to human systems when they function at their best...Questions and dialogue about strengths, successes, values, hopes and dreams are themselves transformational…Human organizing and change, at its best, is a relational process of inquiry, grounded in affirmation and appreciation.”Whitney & Trosten-Bloom, 2003, p.1
7Brief Background on AIDissertation work of David Cooperrider in organizational development, Case Western University School of Management (1980)Currently used in evaluation and research on:organizational effectiveness or changecommunity developmentsocial workeducationhealth
9Language and Context The language we use reflects our context The language we use can influence our contextHow many people here speak a language other than English?Translation is not literal;Example: What is “people” in French? The many words for rice in Filipino.Lakas ng loob = strength of inside (self-confidence, but use of word strength and concept of the “a person’s core”)Snowflake:Rice image:How many people have children or interact with children? One of the main challenges of being a parent is providing discipline. What do the experts tell us? Use positive reinforcement. Say “do” and not “don’t.”Example 2: Use of negatives in disciplining young children.If I tell you: Don’t think of a pink elephantWhat happens?If I tell you: Think of a clear blue sky
10Appreciative Inquiry Process InquireEvaluationCapacityBuildingImagineInnovateImplement4-D model of Cooperrider:DiscoverDreamDesignDestinyBased on the 4-I Model. Preskill & Catsambas, 2006
11AI PhilosophyAction research method: the act of asking questions or doing research is an intervention and changes the contextThe language we use creates our realityPositive image results in positive actionPeople perform better and are more motivated to act when they have a choice in what they will contribute.
12A small group exerciseYou are working in an organization where evaluation is accepted by some and not by othersYou want to know:what are people’s experiences with evaluationhow to increase staff buy-in, andhow to build capacity for evaluationYou decide to use Appreciative Inquiry
13Phase 1: Inquire Choose a partner at your table First, answer the questions on your own (2 minutes)Then, take turns interviewing each other (5 minutes each)Listen with great curiosity and interestTake notes, and listen for memorable quotesAsk probing questions
14Conducting the appreciative interview Peak experience“Tell me about an exceptional experience when an evaluation process was working very well.”Values“What do you value most about yourself and your role in that experience?”Wishes“What 3 wishes do you have so you can have more of this exceptional experience?”
15Small Group Tasks Form a small group of about 6 to 8 persons Tell your partner’s story, values and wishesListen for and note themes as you hear the storiesDiscuss and identify the themesWrite up to 5 themes on the flipchart
16In the larger group What are the common themes? What are the values? What made success possible?
17From Problem-Focused to Appreciative Inquiry What problems are we having?Appreciative Inquiry:What’s working well around here?How can we do more of it?
18Appreciative Inquiry & Problem-Solving Approaches Language used: deficit-basedProblem talkFocus on what does not workGenerates blame and defensivenessTends to have fragmented view of the systemLanguage used: affirmativePossibility talkFocus on what worksGenerates visionTends to have a more wholistic view of the system
19Using AI to learn about action research Everyone’s input is welcome and capturedOpportunity for learning to conduct interviewsOpportunity for learning facilitation of group discussions (focus groups) and identifying themes
21Phase 1: Inquire peak experience values wishes Paired interviews Core questions:peak experiencevalueswishesShare stories in a small groupIdentify themes
22Phase 2: ImagineSmall groups envision a future state: What will the program/organization look like in 3, 5 or 10 years?Visions shared in words and/or visual imagesGroups share their visions and imagesDiscussion of themes
23Phase 3: InnovateDevelop provocative propositions for themes based on stories and visionsStretch the imaginationRepresent the organization’s social architecture (culture, leadership, policies and processes, communications, relationships, structure)
24Phase 4: Implement Members select propositions they wish to work on Monitor, evaluate and celebrate progressKeep the conversation ongoing
25In small groupsImagine that 3 years have passed, and evaluation practices are successfully implemented and used in your organization.Describe:What does it look like? How does it work?Who participates?What types of evaluation knowledge, behaviour and attitudes are occurring?
26Tasks for the GroupReflect on the scenario individually, then share to your small groupIdentify and discuss themesSelect a photo or create a drawing that represents the themesShare in the larger group
27AI as a road map for evaluation InquireEvaluationCapacityBuildingImagineInnovateImplementUse the 4-I phasesClarifyingoutcomesDevelopingevaluationquestionsIdentifyingstakeholdersmeasures &indicatorsUsing data forreporting &managing
28AI can be successfully applied if The organization is interested in using participatory and collaborative approachesThe organization wishes to build capacity for evaluationThe evaluation involves a wide range of stakeholdersThe organization values innovation and creativityThe organization wants to use evaluation findings to improve its programs
29Applying AI approaches Evaluation or QI: questionnaires, interviewsMeetingsStrategic planning
30Case Example 1: Questionnaire Annual survey to members of the Centre’s reference groupTop 3 outstanding contributions or achievement of the reference groupWishes for Centre to be more responsiveWishes for the group to be more effective
31Case Example 2: End of the year project report Project leads respond to a questionnaire to assess how well the project has contributed to the Centre’s Strategic GoalsQuestionnaire is an online form using a web-based project management software (SmartSimple)
33Case Example 2: End of the year project report Number and type of internal and/or external stakeholdersEvidence that the project was successful in addressing the strategic goalOther key contributionsHow can the questions be changed to reflect an AI approach?
35Evaluation capacity building “the intentional work to continuously create and sustain overall organizational processes that make quality evaluation and its uses routine.”Stockdill, Baizerman & Compton, 2002, p. 14“The extent to which an organization has the necessary resources and motivation to conduct, analyze and use evaluations” Gibbs, Napp, Jolly, Westover & Uhl, 2002, p. 161
36In English….Evaluation that is sustainable, appropriate and high qualityTo do: plan and implementTo use: analyze results, engage stakeholders, improve programs
37Source: Preskill & Boyle, 2008 Preskill H & Boyle S (2008). A Multidisciplinary Model of Evaluation Capacity Building American Journal of Evaluation :Check to see if some of the elements here were mentioned in the Inquire or Imagine phase.Strengths of the model:Helps organizations identify strategies for building evaluation capacityIdentifies factors important in moving towards sustained evaluation practicesInvite questions about the modelSource: Preskill & Boyle, 2008
38Some facilitators for building evaluation capacity Leadership, management, championsSystems: collection of data or information, familiarity with QI processes, feedbackOrganizational culture and stabilityCommunicationInvite to see if some of the themes mentioned included this.
39Evaluation Capacity Building Objectives KnowledgeExample: various approaches and methodsSkillsExample: developing a logic modelAffectiveExample: Evaluation adds value and yields useful informationFrom Table 1 of Preskill & Boyle 2008
40AI + ECB = ?What is the value of using an appreciative approach to evaluation?How can the Centre assist your organization in building capacity for evaluation?
41Checking Out What did you find surprising? Exciting? What is your one key insight?What wish do you have to make today’s workshop work better for you?What is one thing you can do/want to do based on what we discussed today?
42Thank you! For questions or comments contact: Evangeline Danseco, PhDHead, Evaluation and Researchx3319