Presentation on theme: "Using Appreciative Inquiry in Educational Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 Using Appreciative Inquiry in Educational Research Dr Maha ShuaybUniversity of Oxford and National Foundation for Educational Research
2 Flow of the Workshop Appreciative Inquiry What is it? Where it can be applied?How to apply it?Democratisation, participation, giving young people a voice,
3 What is AIAI as Way of Thinking “AI is the cooperative search for the best in people and their organizations.” AI as a Process “AI involves the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen a system. It mobilizes Inquiry through an 'unconditional positive question’.” Cooperrider , D.AI is a participative approach. An alternative to the problem solving approach underpinning action research.
4 History and Underpinning Rationale of AI David Cooperrider: Organization developmentChange is usually faced with tensionAction research is often underpinned by a problem solving theoryAn increasing awareness of the limitations of the problem solving approach
5 Problem solving model of action research Identify problemConduct root cause analysisBrainstorm solutions and analyseDevelop action plans/ interventionMetaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved
6 Unintended Consequences Fragmented responsesPuts attention on yesterday’s causesNo new positive images of futureVisionless voice... fatigueWeakened fabric of relationships & defensiveness…negative culture
7 Appreciative model of action research Appreciate “What is” (What gives life?)Imagine “What Might Be”Determine “What Should Be”Create “What Will Be”Inquiry is changeDiscover the ‘positive core’ of an organizationThis kind of change is where people know their strengths, their abilities, the successes.And they work with others to say“What if we did even more of that?“If we allowed ourselves to envision even better results?”“What relationships would deliver those, what systems could stay the same and which ones would need to change?The questions are all about looking forwardMetaphor: Organizations are a solution/mystery to be embraced
8 (What is the world calling for) Appreciative Inquiry 4-D CycleDiscovery“What gives life?”(the best of what is)AppreciatingAffirmativeTopic ChoiceDestiny“How to empower,learn, and improvise”SustainingDream“What might be?”(What is the world calling for)Envisioning ImpactDesign“What should bethe ideal?”Co-Constructing
9 Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle DiscoveryDreamDesignDestinyAppreciate the Best of “What Is”positive questionspeak times when people felt most effective.unique factors that made the high points possible.You organisation has specialist characteristics that differentiate it from other schools, what is the most distinct characteristic of your organisation?
10 Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle DiscoveryDreamDesignDestinyEnvisioning “What Might Be ?”Images of the future emerge out of grounded examples from the positive pastWhat are the most enlivening and exciting possibilities for our organisation?
11 Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle DiscoveryDreamDesignDestinyA Time for InnovationA time to create new forms, new practices and possibly new directions to live the positive core revealed in Discovery and imagined in the Dream. What are the three wishes you would like to come true in your school?
12 Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle DiscoveryDreamDesignDestinyDeciding “What will be?” Continuing the dialogue on “How to empower, learn, and improvise?"
14 The Art of the QuestionWhat possibilities exist that we have not thought about yet?What’s the smallest change that could make the biggest impact?What makes my questions inspiring, energizing, and mobilizing?What’s the biggest problem here?Why did things go wrong?Why do we still have those problems?
15 Designing AI Questions Appreciative interviews involve three different types of question:Initial questions (best of what is)Follow-on questions (Why?)Future questions which look for future solutions based on past experience
16 Activity IDevelop an interview protocol with an opening statement and three or four questions.Topic: Choose an area you are interested in developing
17 InterviewingAI is an interactive process that positively encourages everyone to become involved.Keep an open mindUse positive questionsPresent questions as an invitation.Ask about direct personal experienceOpen questions.Ask additional questions to prompt further response.
18 Activity 2: AI Interviews Conduct a mini-interview with another colleague using the protocol you designed during the previous exercise.After the mini-interview, discuss your questions with your partner such as:What are the strengths of the questions? Did they generate a comprehensive & thought provoking response?How could the questions be strengthened or enhanced?
19 Facilitating AI group workshops Ground RulesEveryone participates.All ideas are valid.Listen, ask and be curious.Engage in relationship-enhancing conversations.Observe time frames.
20 Facilitating AI Focus Groups Introduce AI & the topicIce breaker exerciseExplain about AI InterviewingSetting up small groupsVolunteers to lead and conduct interviews in each groupReporters (write key points or themes)Ice-breaker: In pairs or small groups, participants carry out a mini-interview, taking it in turns to ask each other about their best experiences of etc. Interview Sheet 1 on page 24 can be used for this. Each person should spend up to five minutes as the interviewer and then swap with the interviewee.
21 The role of the reporters Ensure that Relevant Information is captured and returned to the Facilitator.Draw all relevant Templates.Record Provocative Propositions.Capture memorable quotes.Capture highlights of memorable stories.
22 Data AnalysisBushe (1995): “We're not trying to extract themes from the data or categorize responses and add them up. We're trying to generate new theory that will have high face value to members of the organization”.Partially analysed by participants (Proforma)Synthesised and used to facilitate change (focus group)The facilitator's role
23 Where to next What exactly needs to be done by whom to make it happen? How easily could this be done within our present structures?What benefits will it bring and in what time period?State personal commitments and plan next steps for acting on provocative propositions
24 Implementing AI Institutionalizing change is easier when: Stakeholders are on boardcommitment to the mission;change is seen as contributing to the organisation’s targets
25 Challenges Motivation Commitment Keeping the focus on positives Sustaining ChangeTimeFinancial costsThe researcher’s position
26 Tips Involve the most active Invite, influence and involve. Design committees and set up targetsFocus attention on the positive image and on the big picture