Presentation on theme: "Using Appreciative Inquiry in Educational Research Dr Maha Shuayb University of Oxford and National Foundation for Educational Research."— Presentation transcript:
Using Appreciative Inquiry in Educational Research Dr Maha Shuayb University of Oxford and National Foundation for Educational Research
Flow of the Workshop Appreciative Inquiry What is it? Where it can be applied? How to apply it?
What is AI AI as Way of Thinking AI is the cooperative search for the best in people and their organizations. AI as a Process AI involves the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen a system. It mobilizes Inquiry through an 'unconditional positive question. Cooperrider, D.
History and Underpinning Rationale of AI David Cooperrider: Organization development Change is usually faced with tension Action research is often underpinned by a problem solving theory An increasing awareness of the limitations of the problem solving approach
Identify problem Conduct root cause analysis Brainstorm solutions and analyse Develop action plans/ intervention Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved Problem solving model of action research
Fragmented responses Puts attention on yesterdays causes No new positive images of future Visionless voice... fatigue Weakened fabric of relationships & defensiveness…negative culture Unintended Consequences
Appreciative model of action research Metaphor: Organizations are a solution/mystery to be embraced Appreciate What is (What gives life?) Imagine What Might Be Determine What Should Be Create What Will Be Inquiry is change Discover the positive core of an organization
Affirmative Topic Choice Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle Discovery What gives life? (the best of what is) Appreciating Destiny How to empower, learn, and improvise Sustaining Dream What might be? (What is the world calling for) Envisioning Impact Design What should be the ideal? Co-Constructing
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle Discovery Dream DesignDestiny positive questions peak times when people felt most effective. unique factors that made the high points possible. You organisation has specialist characteristics that differentiate it from other schools, what is the most distinct characteristic of your organisation? Appreciate the Best of What Is
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle Images of the future emerge out of grounded examples from the positive past What are the most enlivening and exciting possibilities for our organisation? Envisioning What Might Be ? Discovery Dream DesignDestiny
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle A Time for Innovation A time to create new forms, new practices and possibly new directions to live the positive core revealed in Discovery and imagined in the Dream. What are the three wishes you would like to come true in your school? Discovery Dream DesignDestiny
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle Deciding What will be? Continuing the dialogue on How to empower, learn, and improvise?" Discovery Dream DesignDestiny
The Art of the Question Whats the biggest problem here? Why did things go wrong? Why do we still have those problems? What possibilities exist that we have not thought about yet? Whats the smallest change that could make the biggest impact? What makes my questions inspiring, energizing, and mobilizing?
Designing AI Questions Appreciative interviews involve three different types of question: Initial questions (best of what is) Follow-on questions (Why?) Future questions which look for future solutions based on past experience
Activity I Develop an interview protocol with an opening statement and three or four questions. Topic: Choose an area you are interested in developing
Interviewing AI is an interactive process that positively encourages everyone to become involved. Keep an open mind Use positive questions Present questions as an invitation. Ask about direct personal experience Open questions. Ask additional questions to prompt further response.
Activity 2: AI Interviews Conduct a mini-interview with another colleague using the protocol you designed during the previous exercise. After the mini-interview, discuss your questions with your partner such as: What are the strengths of the questions? Did they generate a comprehensive & thought provoking response? How could the questions be strengthened or enhanced?
Facilitating AI group workshops Ground Rules Everyone participates. All ideas are valid. Listen, ask and be curious. Engage in relationship-enhancing conversations. Observe time frames.
Facilitating AI Focus Groups Introduce AI & the topic Ice breaker exercise Explain about AI Interviewing Setting up small groups Volunteers to lead and conduct interviews in each group Reporters (write key points or themes)
The role of the reporters Ensure that Relevant Information is captured and returned to the Facilitator. Draw all relevant Templates. Record Provocative Propositions. Capture memorable quotes. Capture highlights of memorable stories.
Data Analysis Bushe (1995): We're not trying to extract themes from the data or categorize responses and add them up. We're trying to generate new theory that will have high face value to members of the organization. Partially analysed by participants (Proforma) Synthesised and used to facilitate change (focus group)
Where to next What exactly needs to be done by whom to make it happen? How easily could this be done within our present structures? What benefits will it bring and in what time period? State personal commitments and plan next steps for acting on provocative propositions
Implementing AI Institutionalizing change is easier when: 1) Stakeholders are on board 2) commitment to the mission; 3) change is seen as contributing to the organisations targets
Challenges Motivation Commitment Keeping the focus on positives Sustaining Change Time Financial costs The researchers position
Tips Involve the most active Invite, influence and involve. Design committees and set up targets Focus attention on the positive image and on the big picture