2 Changing Work Patterns: Patterns of workFull-timePart-timeCasualPermanentContractShiftworkVoluntarySelf employedJob shareTelecommutingSeasonalWorking from homeSocial factors leading to changing work patterns (E.G.G. F.E.E.T)EconomicsGender perceptionsGovernment PolicyFamily circumstancesEmployment/UnemploymentEducation/RetrainingTechnologyDescribe each work pattern and evaluate the suitability of each for different individualsAnalyse ABS statistics to determine trends in the Australian workforce.Analyse the relationship between patterns of work and the various social factors and hypothesise about possible future trends.
3 Work :What is work?‘Work’ is a hard word to define. One person’s idea of work can be another person’s idea of leisure. Something that you dislike doing at work, you might quite enjoy in a leisure setting.Most dictionary definitions of the word ‘work’ say that work activity is directed at a specific purpose, and involves mental or physical effort (www.myfuture.edu.au).Why are there different work patterns?1. Identify what work is? Students read introduction in work booklet to identify why different work patterns have evolved.2. Before clicking to the next slide - Students complete the matching activity in their work booklets.
4 Work Patterns: Part time Seasonal Job share Casual Voluntary Self employedPermanentTelecommutingContractWorking from homeShiftworkFull time
5 STATISTICS www.abs.gov.au/ausstats The unemployment rate in October 1996 was 8.3%, in October 2001 it had declined to 7% and by October 2006 it stood at 4.7% (ABS, Labour Force Australia 2006).Between 1995 and 2005, the proportion of employed men working full time decreased from 94% to 85% and for women from 63% to 54%. In the same time period the proportion of employed men working part time more than doubled from 6% to 15% and for women there was an increase from 37% to 46% (ABS, Australian Social Trends 2006).In 2003, 40% of casual employees were young people (aged 15-24yrs) (ABS, Australian Social Trends 2005).The number of home workers in 1992 was 308,000. In June 2000, there were almost 1 million home workers in Australia… 49% of all home workers in 2000 were women (ABS, Australian Social Trends 2002).Very long hours of work (50 hours or more per week) have become more common for full time workers in the last 20 years. Long hours are more common in the occupations characterised by high levels of self employment (ABS, Australian Social Trends 2006).In 2006, 43% of year olds were involved in voluntary work. This was the highest participation of all age groups, for both men and women. Female partners with dependent children had a volunteer rate of 50% compared with 32% for female partners without dependent children (ABS, Voluntary Work, 2006).
6 INDIVIDUALS Tourist Single person University student Teenager Aged personHSC studentMarried personDisabledSingle mother/fatherHome ownerAthleteManWomanCarerCoupleWifeHusbandRenterYr 10 school leaver
7 ANALYSIS Pattern of work Definition Individuals suited to pattern of work.(List one example)Reasons(Why is the pattern of work suitable for the individual)Implications(Affect on individuals/families wellbeing)Full TimeEmployment based on working 35 hours or more per week. Full time employees receive entitlements such as paid annual leave, paid sick leave, and parental leave etc.Mortgage ownerEarning a steady income provides financial security. Full time workers have a set wage or salary that allows them to set a budget. This enables a person to make regular loan repayments and therefore pay off their mortgage comfortably.The implications of an individual with a mortgage working in a full time position may include;Economic wellbeing (+ve) - This pattern of work allows a person to feel financially stable as they have set hours and receive a secure salary/wage. A families needs may be able to be met more comfortably with a regular/steady income.Emotional wellbeing (+ve) - The person will feel self worth and accomplishment in being able to pay off their mortgage. Their self esteem will be improved as they are able to contribute to the loan repayments.Physical wellbeing (+ve)- they may feel safe and secure because they have a place to live. A family may feel a sense of belonging as they have been able to purchase a home and become part of a community. (–ve)- The individual may also feel tired and run down from working full time hours and may have less time to spend with the family…etc
8 REFERENCE LISTHuman rights and equal opportunity commission 2005, Striking the balance: women, men, work and family, discussion paper 2005, HREOC, Sydney.WebsitesUseful Surveys:– 1992 Family Survey– 2002 Child Care Survey– Monthly Labour Force Surveys– 2003 Working Arrangements Survey– Labour Force Survey 2008– Year Book Australia 2005, 2006– Australian Social Trends 2006