Presentation on theme: "CO-TEACHING A Promising Practice Intended to Improve Learning Outcomes for All Students Presented by: Tracy Huckell Student Services Coordinator GSSD May."— Presentation transcript:
1CO-TEACHINGA Promising Practice Intended to Improve Learning Outcomes for All StudentsPresented by: Tracy HuckellStudent Services CoordinatorGSSDMay 2010
2Overview of Presentation What Co-Teaching IsBenefitsCo-teaching ApproachesThe Teaching PartnershipStages of Co-TeachingOther ConsiderationsVideos of Co-Teaching PartnershipsInformation from “A Guide to Co-Teaching” 2008Literature review created by Karen Anderson for the Ministry of Education in 2008Reg’s San Antonio conference
3What is Co-Teaching?Involves two or more professionals delivering instruction to a diverse or blended group of students in a single physical spaceA sharing of teaching responsibilitiesA service delivery model that is based on the philosophy of inclusion and supports collaborative practices among professionals.Joint planning, joint instruction, joint assessment
4Rationale for Co-Teaching “Co-teaching arrangements … are one promising option for meeting the learning needs of the many students who once spent a large part of the school day with special educators in separate classrooms.”Friend, 2007, p. 48
5Rationale for Co-Teaching Promotes principles of inclusion and collaborative practice among teachersProvides a number of benefits for students, teachers, and organizations“Educators must pull together by sharing their work through collaboration; too much knowledge and too many skills are needed for any single professional to keep up with and master all of them.”Friend & Pope, 2005, p.59
6Benefits to StudentsAccess to general education curriculum and classroom teacherIncreases individualized instruction and teacher attentionEnhances academic performanceReduces stigma associated with the “pull-out” modelStronger peer relationships and social skillsBetter attitudes about themselves, academic performance and social skillsIncreased participation of students with disabilitiesContinuity of instruction during teacher absenceStudents exposed to positive models of adult collaboration and team workAll students have the opportunity to gain an appreciation of diversity within their learning and social communityThe literature identifies a number of benefits for students with special needs, such as … (read the list)Many of these benefits have been identified through interviews with teachers and students who have been involved in a co-teaching classroom.The literature also suggests that students who are not identified as special needs may benefit from being in a co-taught classroom. They have access to two teachers working in the classroom, they witness to a model of collaborative teamwork, and they gain an appreciation for diversity within their learning and social community.
7Benefits to TeachersOpportunity for professional growth through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and resources ie. teaching strategies, styles, ways to differentiateIncreases job satisfaction and decreases feelings of isolationReduces student-teacher ratioStudent support teachers increase their understanding of general education curriculum and classroom expectationsGeneral educators increase their ability to adapt/modify lessonsImproves communication between special and general education teachersAbility to intensify instructionSecond set of eyes valuable for difficult situations…extreme behavior, subtle bullying etc.
8Benefits to Schools and Divisions Promotes and sustains inclusive practicesEnhances sense of community within general education classrooms when students with diverse needs are educated along side their non-disable peersFewer referrals for special education services…needs are better addressed in the classroomParent satisfactionStaff more united…greater appreciation for the knowledge & expertise of others
9Co-Teaching Approaches SupportiveTeachingOne teacher leads and the other observes or offers assistanceParallelTeachers work with groups and present the same information.ComplementaryA teacher enhances the instruction provided by the other teacher (i.e., mini lesson)TeamBoth teachers share the planning and the instruction in a coordinated fashion.Different authors refer to slightly different names for the categoriesTeachers can decide to use one approach for an entire lesson or use more than one approach within a lesson.Villa, Thousand, and Nevin suggest that no one co-teaching approach is better than another.These authors advise teachers who are just starting out to perhaps consider beginning with supportive and parallel teaching, and as they develop confidence and trust, move to complementary and team teaching.See additional handouts – Table 4: Description of Co-teaching approaches and Co-Teaching Models
10Supportive Co-teaching One teacher leads the instruction and the other observes or assists students…similar to teacher/EA partnershipOften overused as it requires the least amount of changeDoes not capitalize on the expertise and talents of both teachersIt is important that the supportive teacher not become ‘velcroed’ to individual studentsShould take place most often in the classroom, but may have short periods of time with a child or group outside the classroom if necessary
11Parallel Co-teachingInvolves co-teachers presenting the same or different content to groups of students.In one variation, called “Station Teaching”, co- teachers presents different content to small groups of students. Students rotate through the classroom stations. One of the stations may require students to work independently.This approach provides more individualized support and allows students to receive content from two different teachers using different strategies. (ie. same concept introduced in different ways in order to reinforce)
12Complementary Co-teaching One teacher enhances the instruction of another. This can be accomplished by performing a demonstration or providing a mini-lesson within a lesson.Capitalizes on the teaching strengths of both teachers, but requires more planning time, more flexibility, and a higher degree of trust than the first two approaches.A variation of this approach is what is called “alternative teaching” where one teacher teaches the whole class, while the other pre-teaches, re-teaches, or enriches the lesson to a small group of students. This approach can provide greater individualized instruction.
13Team Teaching Co-teaching Involves both teachers sharing in the planning and the delivery of the instruction in a coordinated fashion.Lessons could be divided based on each teacher’s strengths or both teachers could instruct simultaneously in an almost conversational manner.This approach requires a good working relationship between the teachers and a high level of trust.See handout – Table 4 – Description of ApproachesReg’s handout – Co-Teaching Models p. 16
14Things to Consider Each co-teaching approach is a valid option Some partners evolve through the ‘stages’ and others try all approaches within a few weeks of working togetherThe best way to learn to co-teach is to co-teach and learn by doing
15Implementation Considerations for Teachers involved in Co-Teaching The teaching partnershipPre-planningSelecting & scheduling teachersCo-teaching approachesProfessional developmentCommon planning timeAssessmentAdministrative support
16The Teaching Partnership “Partners much establish trust, develop and work on communication, share the chores, celebrate, work together creatively to overcome the inevitable challenges and problems, and anticipate conflict and handle it in a constructive way.”Villa, Thousand, & Nevin, 2004, p. 3This involves a whole new way of working together and can fail if the relationship is not solid.It is essential teaching partners not only develop plans for student learning, but develop their working relationship so that they can be effective and find joy in working together. This will also proved students with an excellent model of team work.
17Factors in Building and Maintaining Positive Relationships Trust and respectCommitment to team goalsEffective interpersonal, collaborative, and conflict resolution skillsUnderstanding of self and partnerContinuous investment of timeTrust and respect is developed over time as the partners fulfill commitments to one other and share the workload, resources, and their expertise.Commitment to team goals – Co-Teachers need to commit to team goals and focus on these goals. This often means letting go of one’s own preferences and finding new ways of doing things together. Shared goals provide direction and purpose, offer a measure of accountability and growth, and build the bond between co-teachers.Understanding self and partner - partners should discuss what bugs them, their pet peeves, their struggles, their victories etc. Knowing yourself will help you get your needs met. Knowing your partner will help you to assist them in meeting their needs.Continuous investment of time - Relationships need an investment of time. If you shortcut this area, you can do irreparable damage to the relationship between colleagues, the climate in a classroom/school, and the co-teaching initiative (no one else is going to want to try it).Beneficial for Teacher/EA relationship as well.
18Stages to Co-Teaching Beginning Stage Compromising Stage Collaborative StageThere is a developmental nature associated with the teaching partnership.Teaching partners need to recognize the developmental nature of the co-teaching relationship and strive to reach the collaborative stage.
19Beginning Stage Communication may be guarded Often one teacher teaches and the other assistsOne teacher is typically designated the behavior manager
20Compromising Stage Communication is more open and interactive Planning is sharedBoth teachers are involved in the instruction through mini-lessonsThere is a mutual development of rules and routines for students
21Collaborative Stage Effective communication is modeled for students Planning is continual both outside and during instructionBoth teachers participate simultaneously in presenting the lessonThe teachers have a co-developed classroom management system that includes individual behavior plansSee additional handouts attached:Table 2 – Developmental Stages chart – share the componentsTable 12.1 Checklist of Skills for Stages of Co-teaching Development p. 151- Collaborative Teaching Reflection Form – p. 117- Co-Teaching Stages p
22Obstacles/Barriers Fear of conflict Dealing poorly with frustration Lack of a shared vision or an inability to work with colleagues possessing different personalities or philosophiesPoor communication among partnersLow self-esteem or a lack of PD – train as partnersLack of teacher knowledge & skill in classroom management, research-based instruction & high quality assessment methodsLack of willingness to invest the time or effortReluctance to ‘lose’ control of the classroomLack of administrative support or understanding
23Roles and Responsibilities “The biggest challenge for educators is in deciding to share the role that has traditionally been individual: to share the goals, decisions, classroom instruction, responsibility for students, assessment of student learning, problem solving, and classroom management. The teachers must begin to think of it as our class.”Ripley, in Cramer, 2006, p.13An important aspect of the teaching partnership is having a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each teacher.Roles and responsibilities will likely be based on the expertise of each teacher, the amount of time the partners spend in planning the lesson, and the developmental stage of the teaching partnership.It is helpful to determine who is doing what “before”, “during”, and “after” the lesson.There are two key points to keep in mind with respect to roles and responsibilities:1. It is important for students to view the teachers as equals, or they will tend to only accept help from the teacher who plays the dominate role.2. It is important to fully utilize the skills, strengths, and expertise of each teacher. This will ensure that the educational experience for students is enhanced and that both teachers remain motivated in co-teaching.See additional handout p Tips and Strategies for Role Differentiation – Teacher Actions during Co-teaching – useful with EAs as wellRoles & Resp. p. 10 Reg’s stuff – applies to EAs as wellRules & Routines p.8 – Reg’s stuff – good for EAs to know the routines as well
24Key to Successful Co-Teaching The three ‘C’s of Co-teaching are:CommunicateCommunicate in a different wayCommunicate again!“Do you see what I mean?”“Does that sound right to you?”“Can you share your thoughts about how we should do this?”- The more flexible and versatile your communication skills are, the more likely you will be able to communicate successfully with your co-teaching partner.- When co-teachers have their psychological needs met on a daily basis and help meet their partner’s needs as well, they are more likely to thrive despite various stressors along the way.
25Pre-Planning – 8 Components Interpersonal communicationPhysical arrangementFamiliarity with the curriculumCurriculum goals and modificationsInstructional planningInstructional presentationClassroom managementAssessmentThese components need to be addressed as co-teachers begin to work and plan together.
26SchedulingCo-teaching can be used with any grade level - preschool to high school.Co-teaching can be used with any subject area, although the literature refers most often to language arts and mathematics.
27Common Planning Time Schedule co-teachers prep time together Provide substitute coverage a few times during the yearUse school-wide activity daysPlan before and after schoolCombine two classes and release teacherRelease teachers from some committee responsibilitiesAdministration cover classes from time to timeIt is clear from the literature that the greatest complaint of teachers with the co-teaching model was the lack of common planning time.Planning time is needed to plan lessons, to determine curricular and instructional adaptations/modifications, to establish classroom procedures and expectations, to assess student work, and for assessing and working on the co-teaching relationship.Each school will have to determine the options for common planning time that work best for it.Some examples of ways to increase common planning time include … (read the slide).
28Changing the Way We Think “The real issue is not just about adding or manipulating time, but changing the fundamental way that teachers do business when they do sit down face-to-face to plan.”Villa, Thousand, & Nevin, 2004, p. 80Common planning time is important and it is equally important to use that time effectively and efficiently.Teachers can use a common template for lesson and unit planning Figure 11.1 – Co-teaching Daily Lesson Plan Format p. 139 & 140Sample Unit Plan for Co-teachers p. 17Sample Daily Plan for Co-Teachers p. 33
29Professional Development Should Include: An understanding of co-teachingDevelopment of interpersonal, collaborative, and conflict resolution skillsInstructional strategiesKnowledge and skills for differentiating instructionCharacteristics of learners with different learning needsPD must include structured opportunities to develop the following: mutual goals, shared classroom rules and routines, discussing and agreeing upon initial roles and responsibilities, collaboratively organizing the classroom space, understanding different teaching strategies, and collaborative planning and instruction.Co-teachers should also consider visiting other co-teaching partners to learn from their experiences.Villa, Thousand, and Nevin suggest that “people who co-teach are in an ideal situation to spur their own professional growth through dialogue with their co-teachers.” Many teachers identified professional growth as an important benefit of being involved in co-teaching.See additional handouts p. 193/194 Resource M – Self-Assessment: Are we Really Co-teachers?P. 11 Reg’s stuff – Practical StrategiesP. 13 – Multiple Intelligence Strategies – tools that can assist in meeting the needs of learners in a diverse classroom
30What a Better Way to Teach “The practice of co-teaching has the potential to be a wonderful strategy for meeting the needs of all students. Working in partnership with another teacher, bouncing ideas off of one another, planning and orchestrating the perfect lesson, having two pair of eyes and four hands, creating something that is better than that which each partner brings alone…what better way to teach?”Kohler-Evans, 2006, p. 3
31Closing Thought“All students benefit when their teachers share ideas, work cooperatively, and contribute to one another’s learning. There is a growing research base to support this claim.”Villa, Thousand & Nevin, 2004, xiiiWatch short videos of co-teaching here.Questions or comments?