3Co-Teaching is…Simultaneous instruction, with a diverse group of studentsDone with two or more teachersInstruction within the same physical spaceDone in a coordinated fashionneeds to be pre-plannedinvolved collaboration
4Co-Teaching is…A vehicle for school communities to move from feelings of isolation to feelings of community and collaborationA method to meet the diverse needs of all students in the same classroomA supportive and collaborative practice among professionals
5Co-Teaching is not…one person teaching one subject, followed by another who teaches a different subjectone person teaching while another is off using the Xerox machine in the teacher’s loungean assignment of someone to act as a tutor.
6What does Research Say?A study centered on the infusion of language skills (vocab, phonemic awareness) in urban kindergarten settings found that ELL students and native English speakers in a co-taught classroom (classroom teacher and an SLP) showed significantly greater gains than those in traditional classrooms.(Hadley, Simmerman, Long, and Luna, 2000)
7What does Research Say?A Georgia middle school found that students with and without disabilities showed significant increases on standardized tests in math and language arts after 2 years of co-teaching. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the numbers of students with chronic attendance problems.(Burns, 2010)
8Student BenefitsChildren with disabilities have access to general education curriculumReduces stigma often associated with “pull-out” modelHelps build stronger peer relationsActually increases individualized instructionEnhances academic performance
9Teacher Benefits Provides opportunity for professional growth Forum to share knowledge, skills and resources with peersTeachers in a resource role have more opportunity to increase understanding of the general curriculum and classroom expectationsBehavior Management
10Teacher Benefits (cont.) Builds repertoire as to how to adapt curriculum and/or modify the level of instruction to meet needs of students (*differentiation)Promotes collaborative practice between teachersCan increase communication between classroom teachers and teachers in a resource role
11However…“One size does not fit all. Although co-teaching seems to be a promising practice, this does not mean that every student can have his/her educational needs met this way.”Kohler-Evans (2006)Co-teaching isn't recommended for every situation. It works very well for: Student-teaching, inclusion situations, and other areas where need is greatest.There appears to be more reference to those who have mild-to-moderate disabilities as being the best candidates for co-teaching, but the research is really not definitive on this matter.This quotation suggests that while co-teaching may be an effective approach for some students with disabilities, it is not a panacea for all students with special needs.
12General Challenges Lack of planning and organization Planning time togetherRelationship factorsAdministrative supportContinuous investment of timeFear of changePoor communicationDefinition of roles/following roles
13Different Models of Co-Teaching Lead and SupportDuetSpeak and Add/ChartSkills GroupStation TeachingLearning StyleParallel TeachingAdaptingComplementary InstructionIf it isn’t planned and organized before implementation it is not co-teaching. Each of these models require some type of plan or organization from a brief meeting to more elaborate planning. Over time co-teaching will develop and progress more naturally requiring less intensive planning.
14Lead and Support Model Is always the classroom teacher Teacher AIs always the classroom teacherPrimarily responsible for planning a unit of instructionTeacher BIs the teacher in a resource roleShares in delivery, monitoring and evaluationProsSaves teacher B timeKeeps teacher B involved in the educational cycleConsTeacher A may miss differentiation in the planning
15Duet Model Both teachers plan and design the instruction Teacher A and Teacher BBoth teachers plan and design the instructionTeachers take turns delivering various components of the lessonPros: differentiate opportunity and collaborationwonderful for behaviour managementthis is the best model for the studentsCons: takes a great deal of planning to implement effectively
16Speak and Add/Chart Model Teacher APrimary responsibility for designing and deliveringTeacher BAdds and expands with questions, rephrasing, anecdotesRecords key information on charts, transparencies, screen or boardPros: gives the teachers permission to interrupt, disagree or challenge (which catches student attention)simple in terms of timeanyone can do this since you do not need content expertiseclass assistants (integration aides, attendendants) can do thisCons: Too easy to step on each others toes
17Skills Group ModelTeacher A and Teacher BStudents are divided into 2-4 groups based on instructional needEach teacher takes primary responsibility for half the classTeachers may switch groups occasionallyPros: this model is all about the principles of differentiationCons: can feel a bit like tracking (isolating the slower learners)can be too much “flip-flopping”
18Station Teaching Model Teacher AResponsibility for overall instructionTeacher BTeaches small specific skills students have not masteredPros: intense, direct instructionprovides an opportunity for pre-teaching or re-teachingCons: can be part of a package but on its own not really co-teachingisolation
19Learning Style ModelTeacher A and Teacher BBoth teachers share in the design and delivery of instructionOne teacher is primarily responsible for auditory and visual instructionOne teacher is primarily responsible for tactile and kinesthetic instructionPros: meets the multi modality needs of the studentsCons teachers need a repertoire of strategies that meet the multi modality needs of the students
20Parallel Teaching Model Teacher A and Teacher BBoth teachers plan and designClass split into two groupsEach teacher takes a group for the entire lessonPros: teachers work equally togethersmaller manageable groups (management)Cons; some division, segregation
21Adapting ModelTeacher AResponsible for planning and delivering a unit of instructionTeacher BDetermines and provides adaptations for students who are strugglingPros: very little planning time neededCons: Teacher B may feel a bit more like an assistant or aide rather than an equal
22Complementary Instruction Model Teacher AResponsible for delivering core contentTeacher BResponsible for delivering related instruction in areas of study and survival skillsPros: easy accessexpects specialists to bring in their specialty
23Stages to Co-Teaching Beginning Stage Compromising Stage Collaborative Stage
24Collaboration Stage is the Goal Physical arrangementFamiliarity with curriculumCurriculum goals and modification to level of instructionInstructional presentationClassroom managementAssessment
25Collaboration Won’t Just Happen… DeliberateStructuredSystematicOngoingSteele, Bell, & George (2005)
26“The practice of co-teaching has the potential to be a wonderful strategy for meeting the needs of all students. Working in partnership with another teacher, bouncing ideas off of one another, planning and orchestrating the perfect lesson, having two pair of eyes and four hands, creating something that is better than that which each partner brings …what better way to teach?”Kohler-Evans (2006)
27Co-Teaching Resources A Guide to Co-Teaching: Practical Tips for Facilitating Student Learning (Villa, Thousand, & Nevin, 2004)The Co-Teaching Manual (Basson & McCoy, 2007)Co-Teaching Lesson Planning Book (Dieker, 2007)Guidebook for the Magiera-Simmons Quality Indicator Model of Co-Teaching (Magiera & Simmons, 2005)
28ReferencesLawton, M. (1999). Co-Teaching: Are Two Heads Better Than One in an Inclusion Classroom? Harvard Education Letter.Literature Review – Saskatchewan Ministry of EducationProfessional Development ModulesWagaman, J. (2008). Co-Teaching for Success with Special Needs Child – Teachers Working Together for Student Achievement.