2Taken By Surprise“My sizing up of the man... is really one who truly loves his fellow-men, and his country and would make any sacrifice for their good. That he feels himself to be a deliverer of his people from tyranny… His eyes impressed me most of all. There was a liquid quality about them which indicate keen perception and profound sympathy... He spends most of his time [in the country]... He feels he needs the quiet and nature to help him think out the problems of his country. It seems to me that in this he was eminently wise. He is a teetotaler and also a vegetarian.” (From the diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King, [CDN PM], June 29, 1937).
3Thoughts..?What kind of man is Chamberlain made out to be in this diary entry?Would Chamberlain be a man you would want to run your country?What tyranny does King speak of?
4Learning GoalsBy the end of this lesson I will know about the events, actions and policies of Adolph Hitler and how they helped him to rise to power.By the end of this lesson I will understand the various ways that countries responded to the growing Nazi threat as well as be aware of the policies of isolationism and appeasement.By the end of this lesson I will know Hitler’s policies regarding Jews and the how they were put into place within Nazi Germany.
5Hitler’s First Attempt November 9th, 1923He spoke in front of 600 men, and demanded that they support his overthrowing of the “criminals of 1918”He received little support and was arrested and imprisoned for three months, during which time he wrote MEIN KAMPFHitler and his associates failed to gain any real power through trying to incite a revolution.Hitler realized that he would need to be more diplomatic if he was going to get power.
8The growing NSDAP Throughout the 1920’s Hitler’s party grew steadily. By 1928 membership in Germany was at 130,000The party developed the SA (The Sturmabteilung) that engaged in violent action against opposing members and parties.By 1932 the NSDAP were the largest party in German politics…although with no majority
10Hitler’s Coalition January 30th, 1933 Hitler becomes the appointed Chancellor of a coalition government in GermanyCommunist Party was still a real threat and second largest
11Hitler makes a moveHitler asked President Hindenburg to dissolve the parliament in Germany, he refuses.Hitler warned him of the “coming” communist revolution in Germany at the time.Hitler needed to get rid of the communists if he had any hope of having real power in Germany to enact the legislation that he wanted.
12The Fire The Reichstag Fire – February, 1933 Hitler blamed the fire on the Communists, claiming it was the beginning of the revolution.Reichstag fire decree passed by Hindenburg a.k.a. “Law for the Protection of People and State” suspends civil libertiesConsolidate all parties
14The last step The Enabling Act Appoints all legislative control to the chancellor exclusively without requiring consultation with the President or any other government body.Hitler became the official dictator of Germany
15Hitler Seizes PowerJanuary 30, 1933 – Hitler is elected to Chancellor of a Coalition government in Germany.He requested a dissolution (elimination) of the Reichstag (Parliament).Hitler was trying to convince President Hindenburg that the Communist party in Germany was on the verge of a revolution.They had 17% of the population voting for themWere hated by Hitler who had planned on banning them if he could convince the President to give him the powerOn February 27, 1933 the Reichstag was set on fire.Communists blamed – Reichstag Fire DecreeHitler seized 52% of the vote in the March elections.Allowed Hitler to pass enabling actReichstag Fire Decree – banning of civil liberties and allowed the destruction of businesses, papers, radio, movies, books, etc that were not supportive of Nazi Germany
16Hitler in Power Stopped paying reparations to other countries Used government funds to invest in German industry and businessesBegan a systematic process of rearmament – incredibly fast expansion of Army (Wehrmacht), Navy (Kriegsmarine) and the Air Force (Luftwaffe)Would use his special police (SA: The Sturmabteilung) to crush any remnants of the communist party and any other opposition.Would consolidate German politics into one party (there was over 34 at the time)AnschlussRhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland
20The world responds The League of Nations The original purpose of the league?Its ability to serve that purpose?IsolationismThe depression had created a score of problems at home in Canada, Britain, the United States, etc.With WWI fresh in their mind the last thing they wanted was to get engaged in another global conflictGrowing anti-Semitic rhetoric at homeOf the 800,000 Jews seeking refuge from Germany Canada accepted only 4000 – SS. St LouisThe Canadian athletes saluted Hitler at the 1936 OlympicsThe Christie Pits Riots in TorontoThe Canadian Forces purported to reject Jewish volunteers
22AppeasementMany democracies at the time favoured a more diplomatic approach to what they saw as “valid” demands being raised by Hitler.Prime Minister King visited Hitler in 1937 and saw little threat in him or his policiesNeville Chamberlain visited Hitler in 1938 for the Munich conference where he agreed to appease Hitler’s demands if he would cease any further aggression.Hitler promised both King and Chamberlain that once he restored Germany to the same borders it had pre-World War One that he would cease. Chamberlain agreed to give him the Sudetenland (A German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia) in return for a written promise to cease further aggression.Hitler agreed and Chamberlain triumphed it as “peace in our time”Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister of Britain, was openly critical of appeasement.
24What would you do?If you were confronted with a similar situation…what would you do?As a leader…as a father/mother?What would be your justification…to yourself?To the country?What are the risks and benefits to appeasement?
25DupedOnce Hitler had acquired the Sudetenland the rest of Czechoslovakia fell easily as the world finally realized the true intentions of Hitler.The world was further shocked in 1939 when Germany and Russia signed the Molotov- Ribbentrop pact effectively allying the two countries.More appeasement?Poland dividedOn September 3rd, 1939 both Britain and France declared war.On September 9th, 1939 on our own accord, Canada declared war on Germany
26ReviewHitler was able to seize power in Germany by seizing on the desperation of the population and eliminating any competition.The Isolationist policy of the Western powers made the League of Nations extremely ineffective at combatting the growing aggression of Hitler, Mussolini and Hirohito.The strategy of appeasement proved futile in the face of the dictators and resulted in the unnecessary sacrifice of the Sudetenland while allowing the Germany army to continue to build its numbers.Both appeasement and isolationism were a result of countries desire to avoid war combined with their sympathy and admiration for Hitler’s ambition and tenacity. It was only when war “was on our doorstep” that leaders realized the true implications.
27Hitler’s Secret WarFirst they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Socialist. Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Trade Unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Jew. Then they came for me--and there was no one left to speak for me.
28The Nuremberg Laws1935Systematically stripped the Jews of their jobs, rights and civil libertiesJews were identified based on their “heritage” combined with their attitude towards the NSDAP….a bit like a “witch hunt”Defined Jews as inherently inferior and prevented them from “taking control” from the German people.
29Kristallnacht (The Night of the Broken Glass November 9-10, 1938.In the years following the Nuremberg laws many Jews witnessed increased aggression towards them.91 Jews KilledThousands more injured30,000 arrested and taken to camps1000 synagogues were destroyed7000 Jewish Businesses destroyed
34Die Judenfrage – The Jewish problem Almost immediately after being elected Hitler began targeting the Jews with legislation and violence.In 1935 he imposed the Nuremberg Laws – a document that criminalized many of the issues he had discussed in Mein Kampf almost 10 years earlier.November 1938 – Kristallnacht (The Night of the Broken Glass). 36 Jews killed, thousands injured, and over arrested.By 1939 Germany had relocated almost all German Jews into ghettoes located in neighbouring Poland or the German countryside – such as Lodz and WarsawBy 1941 the Jews as well gays, lesbians, gypsies, communists, prisoners of war, the mentally and physically disabled, criminals, and political prisoners were moved to camps.
36Section 1Those with Jewish stars must get up, and move to the back corner of the classroom…leave your belongings where they are, you won’t need them.
37Section 2You will not be permitted to interact with other members of the classroom unless you are doing something for them. Any group work you may be doing with them in another class is now in the past. Any marks you have received in this classroom will be divided up and given to the rest of the class.
38Section 3You will not be able to get a ride, borrow notes, borrow a pencil, or take anything from any other member of the class, including desks, paper and pencils. They now belong to the rest of the class.
39Section 4All those with Jewish stars are forbidden from wearing school uniforms, including sports uniforms and must not participate in school activities. Furthermore, you must wear your Jewish colours at all times so that we can tell you apart.
41Großeltern = grand parents Eltern = parentsEhe gestattet = marriage allowedKinder werdendeutschblütig = children become of German bloodKinder geltenals deutschblütig = children are considered of German bloodEhe nur mit Genehmigungzugelassen = marriage only allowed with official approvalEhe verboten = marriage forbiddenZeichenerklärung = legend"Deutschblütiger"= of German blood"Gehört der Deutschen Bluts- und Volksgemeinschaftan, kann Reichsbürger werden"= is of German blood and belongs to the German national community, can become a citizenof the Reich"Mischling 2. Grades"= crossbreed of the second degree"gehört nur der Deutschen Volksgemeinschaft an, kann Reichsbürger werden"= only belongs to the German national community, can become a citizen of the Reich"Mischling 1. Grades"= crossbreed of the first degree"Jude"= Jew"gehört der jüdischen Bluts- und VOlksgemeinschaft an, kann nicht Reichsbürger werden"= "is of Jewish blood and belongs to the Jewish national community""Kinder werden Mischlinge"= children become crossbreeds"Kinder werden Juden"= children become Jews"Sonderfälle für Mischline ersten Grades"= special cases for crossbreeds of the first degreeMischling gilt als Jude, wenn er der jüdischen Religionsgemeinschaft angehört= a crossbreed is considered Jewish if belonging to the Jewish religious community"Mischling gilt als Jude, wenn er mit einem Juden verheiratet ist"= a crossbreed is considered Jewish, if married to a Jew= children become Jewish"wie oben"= as above
42ReviewMany in the world underestimated Hitler’s desire for power and his willingness to achieve it in any way necessary.The policy of appeasement and isolationism were adopted by many countries in the attempt to avoid war. In the process it made the League of Nations ineffective and allowed Hitler to build his army.Hitler’s policy regarding the Jews was an important part of his platform that he began as soon as he had power – his military campaign was of primary importance but his campaign against the Jews was always present.He stripped the Jews of their rights and then removed them from society, first to the ghettoes and then to the camps.He utilized his power as chancellor to implement legislation that condoned acts of violence and oppression against the Jewish population who were being blamed for the hardships that Germany had experienced after WWI.Many in the world outside of Germany had no idea that this “secret” war was going on against the Jews.