Citations Citations are references to published or other sources within the body of a paper/book/thesis etc. Follow a set citation scheme (Harvard, Chicago etc.). Indicate an intellectual link between the work and the cited source Citation as credit: used to measure impact, research performance etc. Bibliometrics: Systematic measurement of individuals,research groups, institutions, journals, map fields and trends using publication and citation data. Research Assessment Uses bibliometric and other assessements to measure the research output of universities = money!
Bodleian Social Science Library Plagiarism/n 1. The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft.
Bodleian Social Science Library http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-12608869
Bodleian Social Science Library Chatzimarkakis breached university policy by failing to quote direct passages of other works appropriately; instead of using quotation marks to show that the passage was not written by Chatzimarkakis, he simply used a footnote at the end of the text referring to the work it came from. "Such a practice gives the impression that it is Chatzimarkakis who is speaking, while in reality texts of other authors are being reproduced." http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,15232002,00.html http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/14/plagiarism-row-jorgo- chatzimarkakis-germany
What to avoid Verbatim quotation without clear acknowledgement Quotations must always be identified as such by the use of either quotation marks or indentation, with adequate citation. Paraphrasing Is misleading. It is better to write a brief summary of the author’s overall argument in your own words than to paraphrase particular sections of his or her writing. Cutting and pasting from the Internet Information derived from the Internet must be adequately referenced and included in the bibliography. Collusion This can involve unauthorised collaboration between students, failure to attribute assistance received, or failure to follow precisely regulations on group work projects. UAS Education Committee http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/edc/goodpractice/about/
Bodleian Social Science Library Inaccurate citation It is important to cite correctly, according to the conventions of your discipline. Additionally, you should not include anything in a footnote or bibliography that you have not actually consulted. If you cannot gain access to a primary source you must make it clear in your citation that your knowledge of the work has been derived from a secondary text Professional agencies You should neither make use of professional agencies in the production of your work nor submit material which has been written for you. Auto-plagiarism You must not submit work for assessment which you have already submitted (partially or in full) to fulfil the requirements of another degree course or examination UAS Education Committee http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/edc/goodpractice/about/
Bodleian Social Science Library http://www.crim.ox.ac.uk/current/index.php
Turnitin Electronic text matching system Used to find text matches between students’ submitted work and existing electronic sources, including other student assignments and the internet. An Originality Report is produced for each submission. The OR highlights matches with text already held in the database and an overall score (the similarity index) is assigned. A tutor or supervisor needs to set up a class and an assignment to allow students to upload their papers. http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/turnitin/index.xml
Bodleian Social Science Library Referencing Harvard – Author-date system – Use for broader social science approaches – Some but not all legal citations included (e.g. international treaties) http://www.crim.ox.ac.uk/current/_Harvard Citation Guidance.pdf http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Bodleian Social Science Library Harvard Enclose direct quotes in quotation marks. Give the author, date and page number (s) in brackets. “Information literacy is knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner” (Armstrong et al, 2005, p.24). Indent the text if quoting more than 2 lines. Use square brackets if inserting your own words in to the quotation. Indicate any omitted words with three dots … (called ellipsis) If the quotation includes an error, include it too and add [sic].
Bodleian Social Science Library Harvard For 1, 2 or 3 authors, cite their names. – (Clarke, Janes and Pritchard, 2009). For 4 or more authors, use et al (‘and others’) after the first name. – (Clarke et al, 2009). – NB: all names would be noted in the reference list. If the source is anonymous use the title instead. If there is no date use n.d. for no date, or write no date – (Clarke, n.d.). – (Clarke, no date).
Bodleian Social Science Library Harvard If citing more than one work by the same author published in the same year, use lower case letters after the date (Clarke, 2009a). If citing several works at the same point in the text, list in order of publication date separated by semicolons. – Studies in to online searching behaviour (Andrew, 2001; Smith, 2006b; White, 2009) reveal that… ibid ‘in the same place’ can be used when the next reference is the same as the last one. op cit ‘in the work cited’ can be used when the same reference has been cited before, but not most recently. ibid and op cit are also used to avoid duplicating references in the bibliographies of numerical referencing systems.
Bodleian Social Science Library OSCOLA (Oxford university Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities) – Use for legal essays – Citation of authorities, legislation, and other legal documents – Primary sources and secondary sources http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/publications/oscola.php
Choosing your reference manager Getting to know a reference management system well takes a little time and effort There are many different products available and development is ongoing Good use of reference management software can define your workflow Ask: what is important to your workflow?
Choosing your reference manager What is important to you/your workflow? – Cost – Exporting/importing references from databases – Integration with word processors – PDF management – Cross-platform support (Mac, Windows, mobile) – Online storage/syncing – Sharing and social networking
Endnote Pros – Excellent integration with Word and Pages – Desktop software – Online searching of subscription databases – Export from subscription databases – Can manage large numbers of references, good de-duplication – Endnote Web store and import references – Officially supported by OUCS Cons – Expensive – Lack of backwards compatibility – No cloud storage of pdfs – No mobile apps – Falling behind newer more innovative products
Zotero Pros – Free – Able to import references from many sites on the fly (Firefox, Chrome, Safari) – Word and Open Office toolbars – Standalone client (Winows, Mac, Linux) with online sync – Document management (including drag and drop pdf) – Metadata search – Scan barcodes (mobiles) Cons – Limited online functionality – No Internet Exlorer support – No iPhone/iPad app – No pdf annotation
Refworks Pros – Free to use – Integration with Word – Export from subscription databases – References management, de-duplication – Unlimted online storage – Officially supported by OUCS/Alumni access – Mobile Web access Cons – Offline use is limited – No searching of subscription databases – Temporary citations entered as code in Word – No apps
Find out more… Plagiarism: university regulations and information University Education Committee (including online tutorial). http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc/plagiarism/index.shtml University Proctors and Assessors Essential Information for Students. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/proctors/pam/index.shtml MSc Criminology and Criminal Justice Student Handbook. http://www.crim.ox.ac.uk/MSC/
Further information Referencing OSCOLA guidelines. http://denning.law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola.shtml OSCOLA tutorial. http://ilrb.cardiff.ac.uk/citingreferences/oscola/tutorial/ Harvard guidelines. http://library.leeds.ac.uk/info/200232/referencing http://www.crim.ox.ac.uk/current/_Harvard Citation Guidance.pdf http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Further information Endote and Refworks RefWorks and EndNote training. http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/itlp/courses/atoz Bodleian Refworks pages http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/eresources/refworks Bodleian Endnote pages (including connection files) http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/sers/resources/endnote