Presentation on theme: "Academic integrity: good practice in citing and referencing"— Presentation transcript:
1Academic integrity: good practice in citing and referencing Maria Bell
2Outline What is plagiarism Resources to help you at LSE Citing and quotingParaphrasingReferencing styles and toolsTime for questionsLynne / Jane
3Academic writing is about … Posing a question, dilemma, debate that has not been posed in quite the same way before …Answering that question, with an answer that has not been constructed in quite the same way before …Bringing together your ideas with those of others, making connections between things that have not been connected in quite that way before …Using the work/ideas of others is a crucial element, but must be appropriately acknowledged
4Contradictions in academic writing Provide evidence of research, but …write something new and original.Appeal to experts and authorities, but … improve upon or disagree with experts and authorities.Improve your English by using the structures and vocabulary you hear and read, but … use your own words, create your own voice.Give credit/acknowledgement where necessary, but …make your own significant contribution.
5Is it plagiarism if you… Copy a paragraph from a text and put it in your essay without putting it in quotation marks and referencing the source?This is probably the most well known example of plagiarism. If you copy exact words, you must enclose them in quotation marks and acknowledge your source in your bibliography.
6Is it plagiarism if you… Include some paragraphs from a previous essay you have written into the one you are currently submitting?There is such a thing as self-plagiarism. Using your previous work in your current work is actually plagiarism and is not permitted.
7Is it plagiarism if you… Incorporate text from another source, changing one or two words and providing a citation?If you do not intend to quote directly from the source, you must write about it in your own words. Using too many words from the original source is plagiarism, even if you provide a reference.
8Is it plagiarism if you… Copy a diagram or data table from a website, providing a reference for the source underneath?This isn’t plagiarism. You can include tables, diagrams or images from another source as long as you provide a reference.
9Is it plagiarism if you… Adapted from “Is it plagiarism quiz” (https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/plagiarism)Write about the ideas of another author, written in your own words and without referring to the original author?Even if you haven’t directly copied their words, you must provide a reference when talking about their ideas.
10Plagiarism LSE statement “All work for classes and seminars as well as scripts (which include, for example, essays, dissertations and any other work, including computer programs) must be the student's own work. Quotations must be placed properly within quotation marks or indented and must be cited fully. All paraphrased material must be acknowledged. Infringing this requirement, whether deliberately or not, or passing off the work of others as the work of the student, whether deliberately or not, is plagiarism.”
11What is plagiarism? Cutting and pasting from other documents. Quoting without quotation marks or references.Paraphrasing without referencing.Summarising without referencing.Using an image, source and/or diagram without referencing.Taking another student’s ideas and passing them off as your own.Re-cycling your own work which has been submitted for assessment elsewhere.Collaborating on what should be individual work.Translating a document from another language.Lynne
12Why do we need to cite? To acknowledge the work of other writers To demonstrate the body of knowledge on which you have based your workTo enable other researchers to trace your sources and lead them on to further informationA standard system of citing ensures an easier system of tracing knowledge more efficientlyIf you cite correctly, you don’t need to worry about plagiarismYou are upholding and contributing to academic standards and integrity
13Common knowledgeA grey area…. facts/ideas that are generally recognised and not disputed in your discipline. If in any doubt, check with your supervisor. Material is probably common knowledge if:You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources.It is information that you are certain your readers already know.You think the information can easily be found with general reference sources.Adapted from “Avoiding Plagiarism” (http://owl.english.purdue.edu)
14Preventing/avoiding plagiarism Follow good practice in referencing work….
15Referencing Two ways of doing this: References in footnotesHarvard or other approved method: citing in the textDifferent departments have different conventions but most at LSE recommend citing in the text.
16Referencing References in footnotes Patton believes that “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research” and this could be argued to form the basis of his work. (1)Full reference at foot of the page in numerical orderHarvard or other approved method: citing in text or author- datePatton (2005, p.6) believes that “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research” and this could be argued to form the basis of his work.Or :Evaluation has been regarded by some authors as important in qualitative research (Patton & Smith,1995).Full reference in bibliography in alphabetical orderMost LSE departments recommend citing in the text
17QuotingIf you use a direct quotation from an author you should make this clear with quotation marksYou should include the page number/sIf a quote is more than two lines of text indent the quoteUse three full stops to indicate any omitted text but be careful not to change the meaning
18ParaphrasingLook carefully at how things are referenced in the readings for your courseUse the material to support your main argument, not lead itTry reading and then writing a summary without looking back at the textMore practice (from University of Leicester): writing/plagiarism/plagiarism-tutorialLynne
19Key advice for referencing Pick a referencing system and stick with itA paraphrase (i.e.: put another author’s ideas/words into your own) must be citedIf you quote text, indicate what is quoted and where it comes fromIf you use ideas or any other intellectual property belonging to someone else, acknowledge your sourceIf the facts are common knowledge there is no need to provide a citation but if you are in any doubt it is better to be safe and cite our sourceWatch out for “second level” sources (writer A quoting writer B)Keep copies of internet sites, their URLs and the date an item is identified
20Reference management tools These will assist you in storing, organising, and importing consistent, accurate citations in to your work.MariaBooks / materials to take along:Some of the how to cite books including the one on web resources.Two of three theses to show examples of bibliographies in the back. If possible an example of one that doesn’t use Harvard.Card records?What stage of their research are they?One or two books to show how to identify the reference.
21MendeleyYou can set up a personal Mendeley account free:You can download Mendeley Desktop to your laptop / personal computerSearch research papers saved by other Mendeley users and share references in groupsAlso stores PDFs or documentsAccessible from anywhere onlineCan be used as personal tool or for group workMaria to show Mendeley on laptopIpad app tooSuggest all try out Mendeley web versionCreate your public profile with your affiliations etc.
22Zotero Freely available Firefox extension or standalone version Use blue book icon to add bookUse yellow folder to add list of booksAdd references using Word pluginToolbar for referencing
23EndNote Available on all LSE PCs Has very advanced functionality There is also a web version EndNote Online which means you can access your EndNote account on the move and synchronise with your desktop EndNote accountOwn version available for purchase at reduced cost while at LSEAutomatically generate bibliographies
24Bibliographic stylesBibliographic style is a personal choice and different to the Harvard systemIt is about whether titles are italicized, authors full names or initials are includedThere are lots of these to choose from or you can create your ownLook at other dissertations/theses from your Department and follow precedentsSoftware can do a lot of the hard work for you if you use thisBE CONSISTENT!Bibliographic style is a personal choice and is different from the Harvard systemThis is to do with how you layout your bibliography, the order you put your references in, whether or not you italised, if you use author full names or initials etcThere are over 1000 styles – my advice – don’t get hung up about this – just choose one and stick to itDo check with your dept first to see if they have a preference – e.g. Government dept use APA style, Sociology dept used to use the British journal of Sociology styleWith EndNote you can this very easily and you don’t have to worry about it until the end- you can also easily change styles – something that is much more difficult and time-consuming if you have to do it manually.Give out guide to APA style
25Bibliographic stylesThere are many bibliographic styles supported by software!The most well known include:Chicago (known also as Turabian)Commonly used in history and the natural sciencesAmerican Psychological Association (APA) Commonly used in psychology and the social sciencesModern Languages Association (MLA)Commonly used in the humanities - especially the fields of literature and languages
26Example of book citations APA (American Psychological Association) book citation: (Bryson, 1995, p.12) Bryson, B. (1995). Notes from a small island. London: Black Swan.In text citationReferencein bibliographyShow how to cite book both in text citation and bibliography – explain different parts – e.g. author initial rather than full name, title is italised
27Example of journal article citation Chicago Style:(Secker 1997, 53)Secker, Jane. (1997). The digital library: a new perspective. Journal of Documentation 13 (2):In text citationJournal article – author, year and page numberJournal title is in italicsReferencein bibliography
28Round-up Check with department if there is a specific style If no specified style, choose a well known one such as APA or ChicagoFurther information about citing and styles in Library Companion for Students on Moodle
29Don’t panic and ASK if you are unsure about what you are doing! Further supportRemember – accusations of plagiarism are rare …Contact your Academic Support LibrarianContact TLC Student support -Don’t panic and ASK if you are unsure about what you are doing!