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Academic integrity: good practice in citing and referencing

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1 Academic integrity: good practice in citing and referencing
Maria Bell

2 Outline What is plagiarism Resources to help you at LSE
Citing and quoting Paraphrasing Referencing styles and tools Time for questions Lynne / Jane

3 Academic writing is about …
Posing a question, dilemma, debate that has not been posed in quite the same way before … Answering that question, with an answer that has not been constructed in quite the same way before … Bringing together your ideas with those of others, making connections between things that have not been connected in quite that way before … Using the work/ideas of others is a crucial element, but must be appropriately acknowledged

4 Contradictions in academic writing
Provide evidence of research, but …write something new and original. Appeal to experts and authorities, but … improve upon or disagree with experts and authorities. Improve your English by using the structures and vocabulary you hear and read, but … use your own words, create your own voice. Give credit/acknowledgement where necessary, but …make your own significant contribution.

5 Is it plagiarism if you…
Copy a paragraph from a text and put it in your essay without putting it in quotation marks and referencing the source? This is probably the most well known example of plagiarism. If you copy exact words, you must enclose them in quotation marks and acknowledge your source in your bibliography.

6 Is it plagiarism if you…
Include some paragraphs from a previous essay you have written into the one you are currently submitting? There is such a thing as self-plagiarism. Using your previous work in your current work is actually plagiarism and is not permitted.

7 Is it plagiarism if you…
Incorporate text from another source, changing one or two words and providing a citation? If you do not intend to quote directly from the source, you must write about it in your own words. Using too many words from the original source is plagiarism, even if you provide a reference.

8 Is it plagiarism if you…
Copy a diagram or data table from a website, providing a reference for the source underneath? This isn’t plagiarism. You can include tables, diagrams or images from another source as long as you provide a reference.

9 Is it plagiarism if you…
Adapted from “Is it plagiarism quiz” ( Write about the ideas of another author, written in your own words and without referring to the original author? Even if you haven’t directly copied their words, you must provide a reference when talking about their ideas.

10 Plagiarism LSE statement
“All work for classes and seminars as well as scripts (which include, for example, essays, dissertations and any other work, including computer programs) must be the student's own work.  Quotations must be placed properly within quotation marks or indented and must be cited fully. All paraphrased material must be acknowledged. Infringing this requirement, whether deliberately or not, or passing off the work of others as the work of the student, whether deliberately or not, is plagiarism.”

11 What is plagiarism? Cutting and pasting from other documents.
Quoting without quotation marks or references. Paraphrasing without referencing. Summarising without referencing. Using an image, source and/or diagram without referencing. Taking another student’s ideas and passing them off as your own. Re-cycling your own work which has been submitted for assessment elsewhere. Collaborating on what should be individual work. Translating a document from another language. Lynne

12 Why do we need to cite? To acknowledge the work of other writers
To demonstrate the body of knowledge on which you have based your work To enable other researchers to trace your sources and lead them on to further information A standard system of citing ensures an easier system of tracing knowledge more efficiently If you cite correctly, you don’t need to worry about plagiarism You are upholding and contributing to academic standards and integrity

13 Common knowledge A grey area…. facts/ideas that are generally recognised and not disputed in your discipline. If in any doubt, check with your supervisor. Material is probably common knowledge if: You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources. It is information that you are certain your readers already know. You think the information can easily be found with general reference sources. Adapted from “Avoiding Plagiarism” (

14 Preventing/avoiding plagiarism
Follow good practice in referencing work….

15 Referencing Two ways of doing this:
References in footnotes Harvard or other approved method: citing in the text Different departments have different conventions but most at LSE recommend citing in the text.

16 Referencing References in footnotes
Patton believes that “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research” and this could be argued to form the basis of his work. (1) Full reference at foot of the page in numerical order Harvard or other approved method: citing in text or author- date Patton (2005, p.6) believes that “…evaluation is an essential part of qualitative research” and this could be argued to form the basis of his work. Or :Evaluation has been regarded by some authors as important in qualitative research (Patton & Smith,1995). Full reference in bibliography in alphabetical order Most LSE departments recommend citing in the text

17 Quoting If you use a direct quotation from an author you should make this clear with quotation marks You should include the page number/s If a quote is more than two lines of text indent the quote Use three full stops to indicate any omitted text but be careful not to change the meaning

18 Paraphrasing Look carefully at how things are referenced in the readings for your course Use the material to support your main argument, not lead it Try reading and then writing a summary without looking back at the text More practice (from University of Leicester): writing/plagiarism/plagiarism-tutorial Lynne

19 Key advice for referencing
Pick a referencing system and stick with it A paraphrase (i.e.: put another author’s ideas/words into your own) must be cited If you quote text, indicate what is quoted and where it comes from If you use ideas or any other intellectual property belonging to someone else, acknowledge your source If the facts are common knowledge there is no need to provide a citation but if you are in any doubt it is better to be safe and cite our source Watch out for “second level” sources (writer A quoting writer B) Keep copies of internet sites, their URLs and the date an item is identified

20 Reference management tools
These will assist you in storing, organising, and importing consistent, accurate citations in to your work. Maria Books / materials to take along: Some of the how to cite books including the one on web resources. Two of three theses to show examples of bibliographies in the back. If possible an example of one that doesn’t use Harvard. Card records? What stage of their research are they? One or two books to show how to identify the reference.

21 Mendeley You can set up a personal Mendeley account free: You can download Mendeley Desktop to your laptop / personal computer Search research papers saved by other Mendeley users and share references in groups Also stores PDFs or documents Accessible from anywhere online Can be used as personal tool or for group work Maria to show Mendeley on laptop Ipad app too Suggest all try out Mendeley web version Create your public profile with your affiliations etc.

22 Zotero Freely available Firefox extension or standalone version
Use blue book icon to add book Use yellow folder to add list of books Add references using Word plugin Toolbar for referencing

23 EndNote Available on all LSE PCs Has very advanced functionality
There is also a web version EndNote Online which means you can access your EndNote account on the move and synchronise with your desktop EndNote account Own version available for purchase at reduced cost while at LSE Automatically generate bibliographies

24 Bibliographic styles Bibliographic style is a personal choice and different to the Harvard system It is about whether titles are italicized, authors full names or initials are included There are lots of these to choose from or you can create your own Look at other dissertations/theses from your Department and follow precedents Software can do a lot of the hard work for you if you use this BE CONSISTENT! Bibliographic style is a personal choice and is different from the Harvard system This is to do with how you layout your bibliography, the order you put your references in, whether or not you italised, if you use author full names or initials etc There are over 1000 styles – my advice – don’t get hung up about this – just choose one and stick to it Do check with your dept first to see if they have a preference – e.g. Government dept use APA style, Sociology dept used to use the British journal of Sociology style With EndNote you can this very easily and you don’t have to worry about it until the end- you can also easily change styles – something that is much more difficult and time-consuming if you have to do it manually. Give out guide to APA style

25 Bibliographic styles There are many bibliographic styles supported by software! The most well known include: Chicago (known also as Turabian) Commonly used in history and the natural sciences American Psychological Association (APA) Commonly used in psychology and the social sciences Modern Languages Association (MLA) Commonly used in the humanities - especially the fields of literature and languages

26 Example of book citations
APA (American Psychological Association) book citation: (Bryson, 1995, p.12) Bryson, B. (1995). Notes from a small island. London: Black Swan. In text citation Reference in bibliography Show how to cite book both in text citation and bibliography – explain different parts – e.g. author initial rather than full name, title is italised

27 Example of journal article citation
Chicago Style: (Secker 1997, 53) Secker, Jane. (1997). The digital library: a new perspective. Journal of Documentation 13 (2): In text citation Journal article – author, year and page number Journal title is in italics Reference in bibliography

28 Round-up Check with department if there is a specific style
If no specified style, choose a well known one such as APA or Chicago Further information about citing and styles in Library Companion for Students on Moodle

29 Don’t panic and ASK if you are unsure about what you are doing!
Further support Remember – accusations of plagiarism are rare … Contact your Academic Support Librarian Contact TLC Student support - Don’t panic and ASK if you are unsure about what you are doing!

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