Presentation on theme: "MA ELTAM Professional Practice Week 3 The World Wide Web as a language teaching and learning resource."— Presentation transcript:
MA ELTAM Professional Practice Week 3 The World Wide Web as a language teaching and learning resource
Stage1980s–1990s: Communicative CALL 21st century: Integrative CALL TechnologyPCsMultimedia and Internet English-teaching Paradigm Communicative Language Teaching Content-based, ESP / EAP View of languageCognitive (a mentally- constructed system) Socio-cognitive (developed in social interaction) View of learningLearners have different learning styles Constructivism Principal Use of Computers Communicative exercisesAuthentic Discourse Principal objective And fluencyAnd agency Computer RoleTOOLMESSENGER Based on the Three Stages of CALL + Benson’s Role of the Computer
Learning Types (Bloom et al.) Cognitive Knowledge Affective Feelings and emotions Psychomotor Manual and physical
Cognitive Domain - lower levels of thinking skills KNOWLEDGE drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition COMPREHENSION translating, interpreting and extrapolating APPLICATION to situations that are new, unfamiliar or have a new slant for students
Cognitive Domain - higher levels of thinking skills ANALYSIS breaking down into parts, forms SYNTHESIS combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before EVALUATION according to some set of criteria, and state why
Constructivism Schema Theory existing background knowledge determines interpretation of new experiences enables us to make predictions Knowledge is organised We recognise patterns The learner constructs knowledge making use of what s/he already knows The learner is not an ‘empty vessel’ Collaboration, negotiation of meaning and reflection are key for learning
History of WebQuests Started 1995 (now ten years old!) San Diego State University Bernie Dodge and Tom March Part of teacher training course Now a large and growing site with many examples for all areas of education Now a large and growing site with many examples for all areas of education
Definition of WebQuests “A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners' time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners' thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation.” Dodge
WebQuests and constructivism “ Built into the WebQuest process are the strategies of cognitive psychology and constructivism. First, the question posed to students can not be answered simply by collecting and spitting back information. A WebQuest forces students to transform information into something else: a cluster that maps out the main issues, a comparison, a hypothesis, a solution, etc. ” March 1998
Scaffolding “ In order to engage students in higher level cognition, WebQuests use scaffolding or prompting which has been shown to facilitate more advanced thinking… By breaking the task into meaningful "chunks" and asking students to undertake specific sub- tasks, a WebQuest can step them through the kind of thinking process that more expert learners would typically use..” March 1998
WebQuest essentials 1.Introduction 2.Task 3.Sources 4.Description of Process Steps 5.Guidance 6.Conclusion
WebQuest scaffolding Reception Scaffolding –to help the students get started Transformation Scaffolding – to help the students transform the information Production Scaffolding –to help the students show what they have gained
WebQuest Training T-spider T-spider WebQuest page WebQuest page How to write Great WebQuests How to write Great WebQuests
TalenQuests Dutch initiative to include language aspects to WebQuests http://www.kennisnet.nl/thema/talenque st/english/index.html?mnndx=13 http://www.kennisnet.nl/thema/talenque st/english/index.html?mnndx=13
Example of a WebQuest Get into groups of 4 Go to http://webquest.sdsu.edu/webquestwebq uest-hs.html http://webquest.sdsu.edu/webquestwebq uest-hs.html Read the Introduction Complete the task Think about: Pedagogical Approach Level of Technology Role of the Computer Negotiation of Meaning
Discussion Papers Philip Benz - WebQuests for Language Learning http://www.ardecol.ac- grenoble.fr/english/tice/en-webquests.htm http://www.ardecol.ac- grenoble.fr/english/tice/en-webquests.htm
Evaluation Critieria Validity of source (author/ publisher/sponsor..) Purpose Accuracy General appearance Ease of use Interest Pedagogical potential
Validity of source (author/ publisher/sponsor..) Was the site made by an individual or a company? If a company, how well-known are they? Is it likely that the site has been checked for quality by anyone? Is it possible to see the source of the ideas and the activities on the site? Is the content of the site likely to be original?
Purpose Is this site designedto prepare students for a particular exam? Is this site designedto advertise commercial materials? Is this site designed to promote a particular method of teaching? Is this site targeted at a particular group of learners?
Accuracy Is the spelling on this site correct? Are there any grammar mistakes on this site? Are there any grammar ‘rules’ given and if so do I agree with them? Are the facts and figures generally correct?
General appearance Is the site pleasant to look at? Are the graphics in harmony with the topic or ‘just for show’? Are the fonts easy to read? Do the colours go well together? Does the screen seem clear or cluttered?
Ease of use Is it easy to see what the site is about? Is it easy to see what I have to do? If I move to different pages is it easy to get back to where I started? Is it possible to contact the authors and if so how easy is it?
Interest Is the level appropriate for my students? Are the topics suitable for my students? Are the activities interesting / motivating for my students? How much choice of activity does the student get?
Pedagogical potential Is this a site for teaching or revising language? What skills are taught or practised? What knowledge (grammar rules / vocabulary / cultural information) is taught or practised? What seem to be the assumptions about language and learning behind the activities on the site? Can the students work alone or does the teacher need to facilitate the use of the site?