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4th International Conference on e-Learning and

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Presentation on theme: "4th International Conference on e-Learning and"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Guided Inquiry Learning Approach in a Web Environment: Theory and Application
4th International Conference on e-Learning and 4th International Conference on Information 1st – 3rd Sept. 2005 Irfan Naufal Umar Sajap Maswan Universiti Sains Malaysia

2 Introduction Internet & World wide web Web purposes Information
Entertainment Business / commercials Education, training, etc.

3 Issue Majority of EWS is designed for tutorial purposes
Tutorial: linear and sequential. A deductive approach More EWS with inquiry, inductive approach needed

4 Inquiry Definition involves careful observation and measurement
‘ the art and science of asking questions that are accessible, can be answered in part or in whole, and ones that lead to meaningful tests and explorations’ (Hebrank, 2004) involves careful observation and measurement hypothesizing and interpreting theorizing

5 Inquiry it requires Experimentation Reflection Recognition of strengths and weaknesses of its own methods not only in science, but also in other disciplines – social sciences, arts, humanities

6 Inquiry Based Learning
A way of acquiring knowledge through the process of inquiry Learners generate their own question OR are posed with a question by the teacher / computer An active role of the learners – through discovery, investigation, experimentation

7 Inquiry Based Learning
In Malaysia, the focuses of learning in our science education are towards inquiry approach, the development of scientific thinking and skills, research and problem solving, the application of principles of science, as well as the assimilation of scientific attitude and moral values Curriculum Development Centre (1993)

8 Inquiry Based Learning
Types of Inquiry Approach Structured Inquiry (Level I) Guided Inquiry (Level II) Open Inquiry (Level III) (Herron, 1971) The difference: degree of commitment from the learners

9 Inquiry Based Learning
Types of Inquiry Approach Structured Inquiry learners conduct investigation & discovery based on the questions and procedures provided by the teacher/computer

10 Inquiry Based Learning
Types of Inquiry Approach Guided Inquiry learners investigate based on the questions posed by the teacher/ computer, they determine the discovery procedures

11 Inquiry Based Learning
Types of Inquiry Approach Open Inquiry learners investigate and explore based on the questions and procedures that they have to construct

12 Inquiry Based Learning
Prominent researchers Schulman & Tamir (1973) Teacher/computer provides the basic element Learners make generalization Teacher/computer acts as facilitator who poses questions to stimulate learners in their discovery processes Collins & Stevens (1983) Theory of Inquiry Teaching : learners develop their own theories based on the procedures that they have learned

13 Theoretical Background
Paradigm Shift in Education Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Changes in instructional approaches

14 Behaviorism Learning : the change in behavior as a result of feedback & reinforcement Contributions Learning objectives Programmed instruction

15 Cognitivism Studies on how individuals Process input / stimulus
Receive, organize, maintain and utilize information The use of graph / visual The use of hierarchy / structure

16 Constructivism learners actively construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problem, usually in collaboration with others Interactivity Discovery

17 Constructivism Learning should be Learners will Constructive
Reflective Collaborative Inquiry based Evolving Learners will Ask questions Create hypotheses Investigate Use resources Find solution Draw conclusion Revisit conclusion for more exploration INQUIRY APPROACH

18 Tutorial Introduction Present information Question & response
Judge Response Feedback or Remediation Closing Cycle

19 Feedback or Remediation
Tutorial Alessi & Trollip Model (2001) Question & Response Introductory Section Present Information Closing Judge Response Feedback or Remediation

20 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
Three core elements Exploration Term introduction Concept Application

21 Learning Cycle Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995) Exploration
Term Introduction Concept Application Exploration Term Introduction Concept Application Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995)

22 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
Exploration Learners begin the learning process by exploring a given issue, question, or problem that is related to the content The teacher / WBE provides guidance to learners to observe, measure and record data / information They are encouraged to collaborate with their peers to conduct the analysis

23 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
Term Introduction Learners will be introduced to the terms and concepts (by teachers / WBE) Concepts / terms will be clarified, and any misconceptions be corrected

24 Learning Cycle (Lawson)
Concept Application Learners will apply the concepts that they have learned to a new, different situation This cycle will continue until the learner understands the concepts and experiences meaningful learning

25 Learning Cycle Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995) Exploration
Term Introduction Concept Application Exploration Term Introduction Concept Application Lawson Learning Cycle Model (1995)

26 Theory of Inquiry Teaching
Instructional Techniques / strategies to assist learners derive rules and theories : Selecting positive and negative exemplars Varying cases systematically Selecting counterexamples Generating hypothetical cases Forming hypotheses Testing hypotheses Considering alternative predictions Entrapping students Tracing consequences of the misconceptions Collins & Stevens (1983)

27 Guided Inquiry Approach
Questions / Problems Response & Feedback Introduction Discovery / Guidance Concept / Rule Development Application of the Concept / Rule to a New Problem

28 Guided Inquiry Approach
Introduction Learning goals, objectives Overall structure of the WBE Concept map Outline hierarchy GIL approach

29 Guided Inquiry Approach
Question / Problem to stimulate learner’s discovery process Learner will respond to the question or explore the relevant info GIL approach

30 Guided Inquiry Approach
Response & Feedback Incorrect response --- will be guided by WBL A correct response --- a concept / rule will be presented GIL approach

31 Guided Inquiry Approach
Concept / Rule Development Following a correct response to enhance learner’s understanding of the new knowledge Will be used for subsequent problems or questions GIL approach

32 Guided Inquiry Approach
Concept / Rule Application WBE should provide more problems / questions to allow learners apply the concepts and rules acquired earlier GIL approach

33 An Example of GIL approach

34 1. QUESTION / PROBLEM

35 2. DISCOVERY / GUIDANCE

36 2. DISCOVERY / GUIDANCE

37 3. FEEDBACK FOR INCORRECT RESPONSE

38 3. FEEDBACK FOR CORRECT RESPONSE

39 3. CONCEPT / RULE DEVELOPMENT

40 4. CONCEPT / RULE APPLICATION

41 Example: Introductory section – prepare learners
(www.cosi.org/onlineExhibits/simpMach/sm2.html)

42 Question / Problem to stimulate learners for Exploration (www. cosi
Question / Problem to stimulate learners for Exploration (www.cosi.org/onlineExhibits/simpMach/sm2.html)

43 Learners will be guided if they provide incorrect response

44 If the response is correct, the learners will be presented with the concept or rule. Then, the concept or rule will be used to solve a new problem.

45 SUMMARY Guided Inquiry Approach promotes exploratory, discovery learning should be considered in designing a WBE. Several instructional strategies and techniques need to be applied.

46 Thank You


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