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Unit 1 Section B Writing to Argue – Higher Tier Improving your Performance in Writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Section B Writing to Argue – Higher Tier Improving your Performance in Writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 Section B Writing to Argue – Higher Tier Improving your Performance in Writing

2 The Exam – Section B You should spend about an hour on Section B 2 Writing tasks Shorter task: Writing to Explain (25 minutes) Longer task: Writing to Argue (35 minutes) 40 marks available

3 What is Writing to Argue? Discusses an issue or idea Considers both points of view – balanced Reaches an overall judgement to influence the reader

4 Assessment Objectives AO4(i) – Communication Ideas, addressing the audience, meeting the purpose AO4(ii) – Organsiation Type of text, overall structure, use of paragraphs and sentences AO4(iii) – Technical Accuracy Accuracy of writing skills and vocabulary

5 Mark Band 4 Criteria AO3(i) Communication Convincing argument Detailed and succinct argument Sustains purpose, intention and aims Manipulative tone Uses linguistic devices for effect Extensive use of discourse markers AO3(ii) Organisation Whole text written Employs effective paragraphs Uses a variety of structural features Presents ideas coherently AO3(iii) Technical Accuracy Complex sentence structures and punctuation accurate Sentences correctly demarcated Variety of sentences for effect Ambitious vocabulary, accurately spelt Standard English used appropriately

6 What do I need to do? Structure your writing carefully, showing different viewpoints Make your writing interesting to read Use a range of rhetorical devices for effect Use a wide range of paragraphs and types of sentence for effect Use a wide range of punctuation for effect Spell sophisticated words correctly and use an ambitious vocabulary

7 Examples of tasks Write an article for a teenage magazine arguing that nowadays TV or radio can be an important source of education. Write an article in which you argue for or against the view that people should not be encouraged to take part in dangerous sports or activities Older people often blame younger people for today’s problems. Write an article in which you argue that older people are the ones to blame.

8 Writer’s Toolkit Overall Structure Remember to create a detailed plan Write an imaginative opening to engage your reader i.e. a rhetorical question Link your conclusion back to your opening Vary the length of your paragraphs e.g. a one-sentence paragraph Use a range of connectives to link your paragraphs together

9 Writer’s Toolkit Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical questions x 2 Lists of three x 2 Emotive language Anecdotes Facts and Statistics Audience involvement Direct address Personal involvement Alliteration Repetition Over-exaggeration Expert opinions

10 Writer’s Toolkit Sentence Structure Questions Exclamations Short sentences for impact Complex lists e.g. There are many reasons not to smoke: it is bad for your health; it makes you smell; it is very expensive. Begin with a reason Begin with a verb Move your subordinate clauses around e.g. at the beginning

11 Writer’s Toolkit Range of Punctuation Exclamation / question marks Brackets to show sarcasm Inverted commas for irony Apostrophes for omission and possession Use a colon instead of ‘because’ or ‘so’ Use a semi-colon to show that 2 statements are closely linked Put a comma after a connective at the beginning of a sentence

12 Why use a Text Skeleton? It helps you to visualise what your writing should look like… It helps you to structure the writing effectively… It shows the examiner you know what you are doing…

13 Plan an interesting opening e.g. anecdote, question Add your ideas – 2 pros & 1 con Plan an interesting ending e.g. loop back to anecdote Add connectives e.g. Some might say… however ‘Decorate’ your tree with interesting rhetorical devices

14 Approaching the task 1. Analyse the task: work out the PAFT 2. Think of an interesting opening 3. Plan your ideas: 2 pros and 1 cons 4. Think of an effective conclusion – link back to your opening 5. Add connectives 6. Add rhetorical devices

15 PAFT Purpose Audience Form Tone PURPOSE: what job is the writer trying to do? Argue Inform Analyse Imagine Persuade Explain Review Explore Advise Describe Comment Entertain FORM: type of writing Leaflet Article Web page Story Letter Speech Essay Report Advert TONE: what is the mood of the writing? How are we addressed? Enthusiastic Angry Questioning Objective Passionate Frustrated Doubtful Subjective Hopeful Pessimistic Suspicious Neutral Optimistic Sad Sarcastic Cynical HumorousAnnoyed Ironic Knowledgea ble AUDIENCE: the reader Children Experts Teenagers Fans Parents Men Pensioners Women Workers Adults Age Interests Lifestyle Gender Education Class Job Hobbies Politics

16 Interesting openings Begin with an anecdote – tell a story Use a complex list to summarise your main points e.g. there are many reasons to… Use a rhetorical question (NOT “WHAT DO YOU THINK?”) Begin with a controversial statement

17 2 Pros Think of two points that support your view Add evidence: case studies, facts and statistics, quotations Explain how these examples support your views and prove your argument

18 1 con Consider what other people might think Give examples that might support this opinion Explain why these arguments aren’t right

19 Conclusion Link back to what you said in your opening paragraph Repeat or reinforce your main arguments Answer any questions you may have asked Think about what might happen in the future if people don’t do what you want

20 Connectives – Band 3 SEQUENCING Firstly, secondly, thirdly Finally Next ADDING Also / and In addition As well as CONTRASTING Some people believe However Although COMPARING Equally Similarly In the same way

21 Discourse markers – Band 4! Surely it is reasonable to expect… Taking the global view… One alternative position might be… Some people are of the opinion that… On balance, it is clear to see that… It is foolish to suggest that… In considering the need to…

22 Task A newspaper has suggested that women are less suited to doing certain jobs than men are. Write an article for a newspaper in which you argue for or against this view.

23 Approaching the task 1. Analyse the task: work out the PAFT 2. Think of an interesting opening 3. Plan your ideas: 2 pros and 1 con 4. Think of an effective conclusion – link back to your opening 5. Add connectives 6. Add rhetorical devices


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