Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Section B Writing to Inform & Explain Improving your performance in writing."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1 Section B Writing to Inform & Explain Improving your performance in writing
The Exam – Section B You should spend about an hour on Section B 2 Writing tasks Shorter task: Writing to Inform / Explain (25 minutes) Longer task: Writing to Persuade / Argue (35 minutes) 40 marks available
What is Writing to Inform? Gives detailed information about a topic Gives examples to support the points made
What is Writing to Explain? Explains an idea, concept, action or event Gives examples to support the points Gives reasons why or how something happens
Assessment Objectives AO3(i) – Communication Ideas, addressing the audience, meeting the purpose AO3(ii) – Organsiation Type of text, overall structure, use of paragraphs and sentences AO3(iii) – Sentence structure, punctuation and spelling Accuracy of writing skills and vocabulary
Writing to Inform Mark Band 3 Criteria (F Tier) AO3(i) Communication Clear and successful communication Some detail used to engage reader Clearly states purpose and message Appropriate tone with some variation Uses some appropriate rhetorical devices Uses connectives AO3(ii) Organisation Uses paragraphs effectively Uses a variety of structural features Presents good ideas in sentences AO3(iii) Technical Accuracy Uses some complex grammar and punctuation Sentences accurately demarcated Variety of sentences Accuracy in spelling ambitious words Uses standard English
Writing to Explain Mark Band 4 Criteria (H Tier) AO3(i) Communication Convincing explanation – gives clear reasons Detailed and developed ideas Sustains purpose, intention and aims Appropriate and varied tone Uses linguistic devices for effect Extensive use of discourse markers AO3(ii) Organisation Whole text written Employs effective paragraphs Uses a variety of structural features Presents ideas coherently AO3(iii) Technical Accuracy Complex sentence structures and punctuation accurate Sentences correctly demarcated Variety of sentences for effect Ambitious vocabulary, accurately spelt Standard English used appropriately
What do I need to do? Structure your writing carefully, showing how points are linked together Make your writing interesting to read Use a range of rhetorical devices for effect Use a range of paragraphs and types of sentence for effect Use a range of punctuation for effect Spell words correctly and use an interesting vocabulary
Examples of tasks Explain what qualities you think a best friend should have and explain, giving examples, why you think this. Write a leaflet for Year 10 pupils in which you explain how to manage GCSE study successfully. There are many pressures on teenagers today. Write an article for a parents’ magazine, explaining what you think the main pressures are and how they affect young people’s lives.
Writer’s Toolkit Overall Structure Remember to create a detailed plan Write an imaginative opening to engage your reader i.e. an anecdote Link your conclusion back to your opening Vary the length of your paragraphs e.g. a one-sentence paragraph Use a range of connectives to link your paragraphs together
Writer’s Toolkit Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical questions x 2 Lists of three x 2 Emotive language Anecdotes Facts and Statistics Audience involvement Direct address Personal involvement Alliteration Repetition Over-exaggeration Expert opinions
Writer’s Toolkit Sentence Structure Questions Exclamations Short sentences for impact Complex lists e.g. There are many reasons why Beckham is a hero: he has worked hard; he has had great success; he is an inspiration Begin with a reason Begin with a verb Move your subordinate clauses around e.g. at the beginning
Writer’s Toolkit Range of Punctuation Exclamation / question marks Brackets to show sarcasm Inverted commas for irony Apostrophes for omission and possession Use a colon instead of ‘because’ or ‘so’ Use a semi-colon to show that 2 statements are closely linked Put a comma after a connective at the beginning of a sentence
Why use a Text Skeleton? It helps you to visualise what your writing should look like… It helps you to structure the writing effectively… It shows the examiner you know what you are doing…
Draw a fishbone text skeleton Work out the PAFT Purpose > Audience > Form > Tone Write in your ideas, using PEE to structure your paragraphs Point > Evidence > Explain how this proves your point Add an interesting opening & ending e.g. anecdote / question Add connectives to sequence points Don’t forget about some rhetorical devices to make your writing interesting
Approaching the task 1. Analyse the task: work out the PAFT 2. Think of an interesting opening 3. Plan your ideas: 3 points / examples 4. Think of an effective conclusion – link back to your opening 5. Add connectives 6. Add rhetorical devices
PAFT Purpose Audience Form Tone PURPOSE: what job is the writer trying to do? Argue Inform Analyse Imagine Persuade Explain Review Explore Advise Describe Comment Entertain FORM: type of writing Leaflet Article Web page Story Letter Speech Essay Report Advert TONE: what is the mood of the writing? How are we addressed? Enthusiastic Angry Questioning Objective Passionate Frustrated Doubtful Subjective Hopeful Pessimistic Suspicious Neutral Optimistic Sad Sarcastic Cynical HumorousAnnoyed Ironic Knowledgea ble AUDIENCE: the reader Children Experts Teenagers Fans Parents Men Pensioners Women Workers Adults Age Interests Lifestyle Gender Education Class Job Hobbies Politics
Interesting openings Begin with an anecdote – tell a story Use a complex list to summarise your main points e.g. there are many reasons to… Use a rhetorical question (NOT “WHAT DO YOU THINK?”)
Beginning with an anecdote Opening to a response about teenage pressures: Walking into the classroom, Josie groaned. Her coursework for Mrs Brown was still on her desk at home. She might have remembered it if she hadn’t spent her time arguing with her mother over her 10pm ‘curfew’. As she slipped into her seat, Tiffany Cameron muttered, “Where’d’ya get ya shoes, Josephine, Poundland?” Josie looked away and caught Jamie Smith looking at her. Was he laughing at her, or smiling? She put her head on the desk: her face was burning with embarrassment! Begins with a verb Range of sentences Begins with a preposition Slang for effect Rhetorical question Colon instead of ‘because’ Exclamation mark The story identifies various pressures
PEE Paragraphs Point Answer the question ‘what?’ E.g. What makes this person admirable? Example A quotation from an expert or someone who might have something to say An anecdote or brief story A fact, statistic or ratio e.g. 1 in 7, 14%, half of all… Explain Answer the question ‘why?’ E.g. Why does this example show this person is admirable?
Main points – PEE Chains Think of a reason Beckham has worked hard Think of an example of this reason Relentless training Explain how this example supports your reason – link to the task This makes him a hero because it shows us…
Example of a PEE paragraph One of the main reasons David Beckham should be considered a national hero is because he has worked so hard to achieve his success. An example of this is the fact that he started training at such a young age; many of us were still learning to read when he was learning to kick a football! This shows us all how important it is to have a clear goal in life and to always work towards achieving it.
Conclusion Link back to what you said in your opening paragraph Repeat or reinforce your main points Answer any questions you may have asked Think about what might happen in the future if people don’t do what you want
Connectives – Band 3 SEQUENCING Firstly, secondly, thirdly Finally Next ADDING Also / and In addition As well as ILLUSTRATING For example For instance Such as CAUSE AND EFFECT Because Consequently Therefore
Discourse markers – Band 4! Surely it is reasonable to expect… Taking the global view… One alternative position might be… Some people are of the opinion that… On balance, it is clear to see that… It is foolish to suggest that… In considering the need to…
Task Write an article explaining why it is important to support charities.