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Radiation Protection Refresher for Bone Densitometry Dr. Craig Moore Medical Physicist & Radiation Protection Adviser Radiation Physics Service CHH Oncology.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Protection Refresher for Bone Densitometry Dr. Craig Moore Medical Physicist & Radiation Protection Adviser Radiation Physics Service CHH Oncology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Protection Refresher for Bone Densitometry Dr. Craig Moore Medical Physicist & Radiation Protection Adviser Radiation Physics Service CHH Oncology


3 Medical X-ray Equipment

4 Discovered X-rays on 8th November 1895 1896 - X-ray Department set at Glasgow Royal Infirmary Produced many remarkable radiographs In 1896 medical x-ray diagnosis was also started.

5 Frau Roentgen’s hand, 1895 Colles’ fracture 1896

6 First Dental Radiograph Otto Walkhoff (Dentist - Braunschweig, Germany) Jan.1896 (<2 weeks after Roentgen announced discovery of X-rays) 25 minute exposure.

7 1 Feb 1896 Walter Konig (physicist, Germany) 9 min. exposure

8 Elihu Thomson – He immediately saw the dangers of the new radiation but was in a minority. Deliberately exposed a finger for several days to prove the point. Edison’s assistant - hair fell out & scalp became inflamed & ulcerated


10 Was a medical missionary student and photographer who became one of the most prominent pioneering radiologists of the time. By 1898 he had become an American citizen Mihran Kassabian (1870-1910)

11 In 1898 he joined the Hospital Corps of the regular army, gaining much experience in x-ray technique, and paid the price In 1900 he describes the damage to his hands. He attributed the damage to holding the tube and putting his hands in the beam to reassure the patient. In 1903 he urged his colleagues to discuss ways of avoiding the damage that could be caused.

12  1898, started work as radiographer in Cologne - held nervous patients & children with unprotected hands  After 6 months cancer of hand - arm amputated  1915 severe difficulties of breathing - extensive shadow on the left side of her thorax - large wound on her whole front- and back-side  Died on 22 nd October 1916.

13 What is Radiation? Wave – an electric part, and a magnetic part ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EM radiations spread like waves, over space.

14 HOWEVER, RADIATION IS NOT ABSORBED LIKE A WAVE, SO WE HAVE TO DESCRIBE RADIATION AS DESCREET PARTICLES OF ENERGY Photon – a particle Absorption of energy occurs in well-defined chunks of energy, known as wave packets or more correctly photons.

15 + - - - - - - An inner Nucleus made up of Protons (+’vly charged) and Neutrons (0 - zero charge), jointly known as Nucleons. Outer Electrons (- ‘vly charged) orbiting the nucleus. Some Basic Physics – The Atom

16 Ionising Radiation Ionising radiations – have the ability to separate electrons from atoms to produce “ions” + -

17 Why is it dangerous?





22 Absorbed Dose (Jkg -1 ) –Amount of energy deposited per kilogram –Dose to an organ or tissue –Unit is the Gray (Gy) DOSE TO A CERTAIN PLACE IN THE BODY Effective Dose (Jkg -1 ) –This is the average dose to whole body –Unit is the Sievert (Sv) –This gives us the risk of contracting cancer from the x ray exposure THIS IS THE OVERALL DOSE TO THE WHOLE BODY RADIATIONTISSUE

23 Effective dose Dose “averaged” over whole body Risk of inducing cancer is proportional to effective dose, e.g. –LD(50,30) = 4 Sv –UK background = 2.3 mSv per year –Legal dose limit for staff working with DEXA = 6 mSv a year. –Dose Investigation Level for DEXA workers = 1.2 mSv/yr (or 0.1 mSv/month) –Never go above 1 mSv/yr –Usually record zero on dose badge

24 Adult Exposure (per 1 mSv) –Fatal cancer (all types)1 in 20,000 –Fatal leukaemia1 in 200,000 –Non fatal cancer1 in 100,000 –Heritable effects1 in 80,000 Childhood exposure –Fatal cancer1 in 10,000 Foetal exposure –Fatal cancer to 15 years1 in 33,000 –All cancers to 15 years1 in 17,000 –Heritable effects1 in 42,000

25 Risks from Bone Densitometry Exposures

26 Prodigy Patient Risks Patient entrance skin dose –AP spine 0.75mA thin = 12 μGy –AP spine 3mA standard = 47 μGy –AP spine 3mA thick = 105 μGy Effective dose = 0.01 mSv –Risk of radiation induced cancer = 1 in 2 million (i.e. negligible) REMEMBER – RISK OF GETTING CANCER IN OUR LIFETIME IS 1 IN 3 So – RADIATION CANCER INDUCED RISKS ARE RELATIVELY SMALL NEVERTHELESS: –All exposures must be JUSTIFIED –Doses to patients, and staff, must be As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP principle).

27 Prodigy Staff Risks 3 mA –Edge of couch < 24 μSv/h –1m from couch < 3 μGy/h Patient entrance skin dose –AP spine 0.75mA thin = 12 μGy –AP spine 3mA standard = 47 μGy –AP spine 3mA thick = 105 μGy

28 Prodigy Staff Risks Use dose constraint of 0.3 mSv a year –Scatter 1m from couch < 3 μGy/h –Scans about 1 minute each –2500 patients a year –So dose < 3 μGy/h x 2500 x 1/60 = 125μGy = 0.125 mSv So –Controlled area of 1m from couch OK –No lead glass screen needed.

29 Pixi Beam on for 2.5 secs at 50kV then 80kV Dose at 50cm from unit < 40 μSv/h Dose to heel ≈ 200 μGy

30 Pixi Staff Risks Use dose constraint of 0.3 mSv a year –Scatter 50 cm from couch < 40 μGy/h –Scans about 2.5 seconds each –< 30 exposures a day, –So dose < 40 μGy/h x 30/d x 2.5/3600 x = 0.8 μGy/day < 170 μGy/year =0.17 mSv So –Controlled area of 50 cm from Pixi OK –No lead glass screen needed.

31 Calscan 0.5m controlled area Heel entrance dose ≈ 240 μGy Effective dose to patient = 0.2 μSv

32 Metriscan Scatter dose < 0.50 μGy per exam at edge of machine Patient Skin dose < 120 μGy

33 Recent dose results

34 1 milli-sievert (1 mSv) =annual public dose limit =patient dose from abdomen X-ray =1 in 20,000 risk of fatal cancer Risk of dying on UK road = 1 in 20,000 per year Risk from chest X-ray = 1 in 1,000,000 Risk of meteorite killing 1 / 4 of world population = 1 in 500,000

35 Effective dose from natural background radiation in the UK is approximately 2.2 mSv –SO WE ALL RECEIVE 2.2 mSv EVERY YEAR FROM NATURAL SOURCES AND WE CAN’T DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT This natural radiation comes from cosmic rays, rocks and soil, food, human body & radon.

36 Stochastic (Random effects) –Probability of an effect depends upon total dose received –Severity of effect is independent of the dose –Assumed there is no threshold (i.e. there is no dose below which effects do not occur) –Examples are cancer and genetic defects

37 37 i.e. a bit like crossing the road - the more times you cross the more likely you are to be run over, but probably never will.

38 Deterministic Effects (Certain) –Effects are certain to occur if sufficient radiation dose is received –Severity will depend upon the dose received threshold doses –There are threshold doses for deterministic effects Skin ‘burn’ (or erythema) is 3 to 5 Gy Common in radiotherapy and occasionally in interventional procedures –Examples are radiation sickness, erythema, infertility, cataract.

39 Example of Radiation Injury in Cardiology 40 year old male coronary angiography coronary angioplasty second angiography procedure due to complications coronary artery by-pass graft all on 29 March 1990

40 Fig. A 6-8 weeks after multiple coronary angiography and angioplasty procedures

41 Fig. B 16 to 21 weeks after procedure, with small ulcerated area present

42 Fig. C 18-21 months after procedure, evidencing tissue necrosis

43 Fig. D Close up of lession in Fig. C From injury, dose probably in excess of 20 Gy.

44 Fig. E Appearance after skin grafting procedure.

45 45 Hair loss from CT scan 53-year-old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage 4 CT perfusion scans and two angiographies of the head performed within first 15 days of admission Bandage-shaped hair loss seen 37 days after first CT and lasted lasted for 51 days (Imanishi et al 2005)

46 Staff doses never this big

47 There are three principles of radiation protection: Justification –All exposures to ionising radiations must be clinically justified – benefit must outweigh detriment Optimisation –Once exposure has been justified it must be optimised i.e. lowest possible dose for acceptable image quality Limitation –Radiation workers are subject dose limits by law


49 The real risk to staff

50  Time  Distance  Shielding


52 In air, x-rays obey the Inverse Square Law. I∞1/d 2 Double distance = 1 / 4 dose Triple distance = 1 / 9 th dose.

53 Distance Operator B receives only a quarter of the radiation received by Operator A if she is standing twice the distance from the source Operator B receives only one ninth of the radiation received by Operator A is she is standing 3 times the distance from the source

54 Shielding

55 Shielding


57 AAs LLow AAs RReasonably PracticablePracticable ALARP The ALARP Principle

58 And remember


60 What’s the Point in Legislating? Ionising radiation such as X-rays can cause the following effects: –Tissue damage such as skin burns and loss of hair, and –Stochastic (random) effects (per 1 mSv) such as: 1 in 20,000 risk of fatal cancer 1 in 100,000 risk of non fatal cancer 1 in 77,000 risk of hereditary effects –The mSv (milli-sievert) is a measure of radiation dose Staff receive radiation doses from X-rays that scatter from the patient Ionising radiation is invisible so you can’t see or smell it, hence it can cause damage without you knowing about it (at first!!!)

61 The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) Protection of –Staff –Public from ionising radiation (such as X-rays)

62 Authorisation The IRR99 are enforced by the Health and Safety Executive in the UK

63 Structure of IRR99 Legislation Approved code of Practice & HSE Guidance (approx 170 pages) Medical & Dental Guidance Notes (approx 230 pages)

64 So what’s included in IRR99 (relevant to DEXA) General Principles and Procedures –Risk assessment –Dose restriction –Dose limitation Arrangements for the Management of Radiation Protection –Radiation Protection Adviser –Radiation Protection Supervisor –Local Rules Designated Areas –Controlled Areas Classification and Monitoring of Persons –Dose badges Duties of Employees –All of us have duties under these regulations

65 Reg 11: Staff and public dose limits

66 Reg 11: Dose Limits for staff & public (mSv) per calendar year StaffPublic Whole body dose 61 Lens of eye4515 Skin15050 Hands, legs etc15050 Possibly changing to 15 mSv/yr in 2014 Whole body dose limit is low because this is aimed at minimising staff cancer risks from radiation exposure Other dose limits are higher because they are aimed at ensuring no member of staff receives tissue damage, i.e. skin burns of cataract

67 Reg 7: Prior Risk Assessment Must be undertaken before work commences with ionising radiations (X-rays) –Identify hazards –Decide who might be harmed and how –Evaluate risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate or not –Record findings of risk assessment –Review and revise it By Law has to be done (or approved) by a certified Radiation Protection Adviser

68 DEXA Radiation Risk Assessments Radiation Risk Assessments have been produced and are constantly reviewed for staff working in DEXA The Trust Radiation Protection Adviser produces the risk assessment in conjunction with the Radiation Protection Supervisor Radiation dose to the body, extremities and eyes are assessed. Any Personal Protective Equipment (PPE such as lead aprons) required are advised Pregnant staff: –By law the Trust Radiation Protection Adviser MUST carry out a radiation risk assessment for unborn child

69 Risk Assessments

70 Reg 8: Restriction of Exposure Doses must be optimised –As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) Hierarchy of protection measures: –Engineering controls such as the design of X-ray tubes and shielding –Systems of work such as local rules –PPE such as lead aprons –Dose constraints (when the RPA is planning the design of X-ray Rooms) 1 mSv to foetus during declared term Formal Investigation levels of staff dose

71 Female Staff of Child Bearing Age Staff working with radiation are naturally concerned to minimise the risk to a foetus should they become pregnant IRR99 places the onus on the employer to provide adequate information and on the employee to inform that they are pregnant The employer must: – ensure that the dose to the foetus does not exceed 1 mSv –Notify female employees working with X rays the risk to the foetus from X rays, and the importance of informing the employer in writing as soon as they are pregnant

72 Doses and Risk to the Foetus Current legal limit to foetus is 1 mSv This corresponds to around 2 mSv to the abdomen Assuming 8 months of declared pregnancy, dose to abdomen must be kept below 0.25 mSv per month Over many years, experience tells us that these dose levels probably won’t be reached by staff in DEXA, assuming Local Rules are followed Individual risk assessment must be carried out

73 Reg 9: Personal Protective Equipment Should be provided where necessary, i.e. if the risk assessments recommends the use of PPE Should comply with PPE regulations 1992 Should be properly maintained

74 Lead Apron Storage Always return to hanger Do not –fold –dump on floor and run trolleys over the top of them!!! Radiology will check them annually to make sure there are no hidden cracks But if visibly damaged, ask Radiology to check them. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT APRONS ARE WORN CORRECTLY AND RETURNED TO THEIR HANGER – YOU ARE AT RISK OF PROSECUTION BY THE HSE FOR NOT MAINTAINING PPE

75 Dose Monitoring Most employees who work with radiation in a Hospital Trust have radiation monitoring badges. These monitor the exposure to radiation of an employee Doses received are assessed by the RPA to ensure they are being kept As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) If you are issued with a badge, please ensure you –wear it under your lead apron during all procedures with X- rays –Return it promptly at the end of the month A consultant radiologist was recently prosecuted under the IRR99 regulations for not wearing his dose badge (not at this Trust)

76 Dose monitoring results for DEXA Whole body –typically less than 0.1 mSv/month (usually records a ‘zero’) –This equates to less than 1 mSv/yr –Much lower than legal limit of 6 mSv/yr –Under reg 8 we have to set local dose investigation level: –0.10mSv/month for DEXA – see local rules

77 Exemptions to Dose Limits Comforter and Carer –These knowingly and willingly incur an exposure having been fully advised of the risks –Not as part of their job –Usually a family member or friend What about the other? Persons undergoing medical exposure, i.e. the patient

78 Reg 12: Contingency plans Contingency plan required for ‘reasonably foreseeable’ accident Radiotherapy: –Emergency stop buttons In Brachytherapy if the source fails to retract during treatment: –Take out applicators and place in lead pot –Wire cutters may be needed in some instances! Radiology (inc DEXA): –Emergency stop buttons Nuclear Medicine: –Spills and contamination Plan must be documented in Local Rules Must be rehearsed at appropriate intervals dependent on: –Potential severity –Likely doses –Complexity of plan –Number of people involved –Involvement of emergency services

79 Part 3 Arrangements for the Management of Radiation Protection

80 Reg 13: Radiation Protection Adviser RPA must be suitably qualified –Must be certified by HSE approved body Employer must consult RPA on the following matters: –Implementation of Controlled and Supervised Areas (eg signage) –Prior examination of plans for installations and the acceptance into service of new or modified sources of radiation in relation to safety and warning features –Regular calibration of equipment provided for monitoring levels of ionising radiation –Regular checking of systems of work provided to restrict exposure to ionising radiation In addition, employer should consult RPA on: –Risk assessment –Designation of controlled areas –Conduct of investigations –Drawing up of contingency plans –QA programmes For HEY: –Dr. Craig Moore –Mr. John Saunderson

81 Reg 14: Information, Instruction and Training Employees must receive adequate training –Risks from ionising radiations –Precautions to reduce risk –Importance of complying with regs Also need training under the IRMER regulations (mush more physics)!!!!!

82 Part 5 Designated Areas

83 Reg 16: Designation of Controlled and Supervised Areas Based on risk assessment Controlled –……..if it is necessary to follow special procedures to restrict significant exposure to ionising radiation in that area or prevent or limit the probability and magnitude of radiation accidents of their effects, –or any person working in that area likely to receive effective dose greater than 6 mSv or 3/10 of any other dose limit (eye, hands etc)

84 Reg 16: Controlled Areas – DEXA Prodigy: – 1m from couch Cacscan/Pixi/Metriscan –50cm from unit 50cm 1m

85 Local Rules Local Rules must be written and adhered to for every radiation controlled area Essential contents of local rules include: –Dose investigation level –Contingency arrangements –Name of radiation protection supervisor & Adviser –Identification of area covered –Working instructions You MUST work in accordance to these local rules

86 Reg 17: Local Rules Local rules must be provided for controlled areas

87 Reg 17: Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS) Local staff member to ensure local rules are being followed Must have a knowledge of regulations and Local Rules Ability to command respect Understanding of precautions required and extent to which these will restrict exposures Ann Goodby for DEXA RPS must be adequately trained

88 Reg 18: Additional requirements for designated areas Must have physical demarcation of controlled areas Warning signs (controlled and supervised) Entry restricted to controlled areas

89 Reg 19: Monitoring of Designated Areas Legal requirement to monitor dose rates around controlled area at commissioning We also have to monitoring at appropriate frequencies –We usually do this by sticking dose badges up around X-rays rooms from time to time Monitoring recorded and reviewed Results kept for two years by qualified person Monitoring equipment maintained and tested at regular intervals

90 Reg 31:Duties of Manufacturers Manufacturers MUST design & construct X-ray units to restrict exposure & ALARP The manufacturer MUST provide proper instructions on proper use, testing and maintenance of X-ray equipment Installer of X-ray equipment MUST perform critical examination upon installation Safety features RPA MUST be consulted on results of crit ex

91 Reg 32: Quality Assurance Programme A suitable quality assurance programme to be provided ensuring that equipment remains capable of restricting exposure to radiation –Adequate testing before clinical use –Adequate testing of the performance throughout lifetime of equipment –Assessment of representative doses Users test the performance on a frequent basis Medical Physicists test the safety features, radiation dose and image quality aspects of all X-ray systems annually.

92 Reg 34: Duties of Employees Must not recklessly interfere with sources Must not expose themselves unnecessarily Report immediately to the RPS/Employer if an incident or accident has occurred

93 Duties of Employees – DO NOTS DO NOT X-ray yourself (even if you think you have broken a bone) DO NOT X-ray your colleagues (even if you suspect they have broken a bone) DO NOT X-ray someone to carry out tests on the equipment DO NOT fail to use lead glass screen properly DO NOT fail to wear lead aprons and thyroid collars (if you have a thyroid collar!!) DO NOT fail to report to your RPS any defects in lead aprons DO NOT fail to return lead aprons to their hangers DO NOT tamper with dose badges DO NOT hand badges in late DO NOT fail to wear badges UNDER your lead apron DO NOT fail to inform your RPS if you believe yourself or someone else has received an overexposure THE HSE HAVE PROSECUTED INDIVIDUALS IN THE UK FOR NOT COMPLYING WITH THIS REGULATION

94 Notification of Incidents Must report to external body when the dose to a patient is ‘much greater than intended’ –If it was a machine fault this must be reported to the HSE –If any other fault (e.g. radiographer) then inform Care Quality Commission

95 Compliance with the Regulations HSE Inspectorate Regional specialist inspectors Powers of enforcement –Improvement notice –Prohibition notice –Prosecution Unlimited fine Maximum 2 years in prison

96 Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 - IRMER

97 Principles of Radiation Protection JUSTIFICATION –Benefit of the radiation exposure must outweigh risk OPTIMISATION –As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) LIMITATION

98 What is IRMER? The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 The regulations apply to the following medical exposures: –The exposure of patients as part of their medical diagnosis or treatment including any exposure of an asymptomatic individual –The exposure of individuals as part of occupational health surveillance –The exposure of individuals as part of health screening programmes –The exposure of patients or other persons voluntarily participating in medical or biomedical, diagnostic or therapeutic, research programmes –The exposure of individuals as part of medico-legal procedures ‘Medical exposure’ means an exposure to ionising radiation, such as: –Diagnostic X-rays, CT and DEXA –Radiotherapy (including brachytherapy and therapy using unsealed radioactive sources –Radionuclide imaging (including diagnostic imaging and in vitro measurements in Nuclear Medicine Dept) MRI, lasers and Ultrasound are not covered by IRMER

99 IRMER IRMER specifically places duties on those professionals responsible for the patient exposure to ionising radiation

100 Main Duty Holders under IRMER Employer Referrer IRMER Practitioner Operator Medical Physics Expert (MPE)

101 IRMER Referrer Registered Healthcare professional who is entitled in accordance with the with the employer’s procedures to refer individuals for medical exposure to an IRMER Practitioner Must have access to referral criteria Must supply the IRMER practitioner with sufficient medical data to help him justify exposure. Reg 5(5) In HEY, those who are allowed to act as referrers are depends on department – written procedure must be in place

102 IRMER Practitioner Registered healthcare professional who is entitled in accordance with the employer’s procedures to take responsibility for an individual medical exposure –Must justify exposure –Must authorise exposure (or delegate) –Must be adequately trained – IRMER reg 11 –May delegate practical aspects (operator) In HEY dependent on department and modality – must be a written procedure


104 IRMER Operator Any person who is entitled, in accordance with employer’s procedures, to carry out practical aspects of the exposure Functions and responsibilities of individual operators must be clearly defined in employer’s procedures Need to be adequately trained – IRMER reg 11 No overarching responsibility allowed MUST optimise every exposure Examples: –Radiographers –Technicians –Physicists

105 Medical Physics Expert (MPE) An MPE must be involved in every medical exposure to which the IRMER regulations apply and shall be: –Closely involved in every radiotherapeutic practice other than standardised nuclear medicine practices –Available in standardised therapeutic nuclear medicine practices and in diagnostic nuclear medicine practices –Involved as appropriate for consultation on optimisation, including patient dosimetry and quality assurance, and to give advice on matters relating to radiation protection concerning medical exposure, as required, in all other radiological practices In this Trust, MPEs are: X-ray –Craig Moore –John Saunderson

106 Duties of employer 4(1) Written procedures MUST be in place and adhered to by all IRMER Practitioners and Operators 4(2) Written exposure protocols MUST be in place to ensure consistent patient exposure 4(3) The employer MUST establish –Referral criteria (these must be made available to the referrer) –QA programmes –Diagnostic reference levels –Upper levels of dose for research exposures and make sure these are adhered to

107 Reg 4(4) –Employer shall ensure every practitioner and operator undertakes continual education and training Reg 4(5) –Exposure to ‘much greater than intended’ must be reported Reg 4(6) –Take corrective action whenever patient Diagnostic Reference Levels are consistently exceeded –These are upper levels of patient dose that should not normally be exceeded Duties of employer

108 Duties of IRMER Practitioner and IRMER Operator: Optimisation Practitioner and operator to keep doses ALARP Legally obliged to make sure this happens Possibly the most important aspect of these regulations In DEXA: –Techs DO NOT justify the exposure –Techs authorise under justification protocols (written by Consultant – Dr Aye) –Consultant justifies ALL exposures ‘by proxy’ for DEXA –Justification AND Authorisation are required under regulations 6(1a) and 6(1b)

109 Case Study 1 An SHO sends a patient to the X ray dept for chest X ray The radiographer checks the request form against justification guidelines written by a radiologist and x rays the patient Who is the: Referrer? SHO Operator? Radiographer Practitioner? Radiologist who writes the written guidelines

110 Case Study 2 A GP sends a patient for a CT scan The details are checked by a radiologist and the patient is scanned by a Radiographer. The Radiologist evaluates the images. Who is the: Referrer? GP Practitioner? Radiologist Operator? Radiographer & Radiologist (evaluating an image is an operator function)

111 Case Study 3 A Cardiology Specialist Registrar refers a patient for angioplasty The Consultant Cardiologist countersigns the referral The procedure is carried out in a Cath Lab under the direction of a Cardiologist Specialist Registrar The Cardiology Radiographer exposes the patient to X-ray during the procedure Who is the: Referrer? Consultant Cardiologist Practitioner? Registrar Operator? Registrar Radiographer

112 Exposures of patients for research purposes Must be approved by ethics committee Each exposure must be justified by IRMER Practitioner Dose constraints must be derived by an MPE Dose constraints must be adhered to Patient must participate voluntarily Patient must be informed of the risks in advance

113 Image Evaluation Clinical Outcome –There MUST be a record of the outcome of the procedure with radiation

114 Clinical Audit Core component of clinical governance Must follow national procedures

115 Equipment Inventory of equipment MUST be in place –Name of manufacturer –Model number –Serial number –Year of manufacture –Year of installation Avoid unnecessary proliferation – if you have more x ray units than you need, you are breaking the law!!!

116 Training Adequate training must be given –Dependent upon activity –Lots of physics Records must be kept Continual Professional Development and training

117 IRMER Legal Requirement under Reg 4(1) & Schedule 1 Employer’s Written Procedures

118 Employer’s Procedures (a) Procedures to identify correctly the individual to be exposed to ionising radiation If we X-ray or treat the wrong patient we have to report it to the CQC

119 Employer’s Procedures (b) procedures to identify individuals entitled to act as referrer or practitioner or operator

120 Employer’s Procedures (c) procedures to be observed in the case of medico-legal exposures

121 Employer’s Procedures (d) procedures for making enquiries of females of childbearing age to establish whether the individual is or may be pregnant

122 Employer’s Procedures (e) procedures for ensuring quality assurance programmes are followed

123 Employer’s Procedures (f) procedures for the assessment of patient dose

124 Employer’s Procedures (g) procedures for use of diagnostic reference levels established by the employer for radiographic examinations stating that these are not expected to be exceeded for standard procedures when good or normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance applied –DRLs are doses that you shouldn’t consistently exceed under normal operating conditions –DAPs, DLPs, screening times

125 Employer’s Procedures (h) procedures for the use of dose constraints for research programmes where no direct medical benefit for the individual is expected from the exposure

126 (i) procedures for giving information and written instructions to radioactive patients

127 Employer’s Procedures (j) procedures for carrying out and recording of an evaluation for each medical exposure including where appropriate, factors relevant to patient dose

128 Employer’s Procedures (k) procedures to ensure that the probability and magnitude of accidental or unintended dose to patients is reduced as far as reasonably practicable

129 Enforcing Authority Care Quality Commission (CQC) Powers of enforcement –Improvement notice –Prohibition notice –Prosecution Unlimited fine Maximum 2 years in prison

130 Summary You must ensure you are following local rules and procedures If you are not it is likely you are not complying with IRR99 or IRMER You may be personally liable!!! Ann Goodby is the custodian of all your radiation protection documentation

131 Contacts Radiation Protection Advisers: –Mr. John Saunderson (461329) –Dr. Craig Moore (461385) Radiation Protection Specialists: –Dr. Tim Wood (461332) –Mr. Andrew Davis (461330) –Mr. Dave Strain (461331) Radiation Protection Supervisor: –Ann Goodby Our website New RP Trust Policy in the near future

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