Presentation on theme: "Special Radiographic examination"— Presentation transcript:
1 Special Radiographic examination By Dr/ Dina Metwaly
2 General radiographic examinations General Radiography refers to procedures used to image chest, bones, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, etc. The following exams fall under General Radiology procedures: Chest, spine, abdominal and extremity x-rays.Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)GI Procedures (Barium swallow, Upper GI, Small Bowel Follow Through, and Barium Enema).
3 General radiography may be conventional or fluoroscopy General radiography may be conventional or fluoroscopy. Examinations such as chest x-ray, spine x- ray or extremities are imaged electronically and viewed on a computer monitor. Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous x-ray image on a monitor, much like an x-ray movie. It is used to diagnose or treat patients by displaying the movement of a body part or organ. One example is a barium enema, which is used to view movement through the lower GI tract.Bone mineral denistometry scans (BMD) help identify patients with low, or potentially low, density of their bones. Once identified, treatment can help prevent future bone fractures due to osteoporosis.
4 PATIENT PREPARATION FOR GENERAL X-RAY An x-ray requires no special physical preparation. The patient does not need to restrict food or fluids prior to the test .Always introduce yourself to the patient and state your profession.Explain the procedure and the patient’s role.The patient will be asked to remove jewelry or other metal objects and change into a medical gown,This is not necessary for x-ray of hands, wrists, feet or ankles.
5 ask if the patient is pregnant as x-rays are harmful to a fetus. Female patients should remove their bra prior to an abdomen, chest or spine x-rayFemale patients must adhere to the 10-day rule (The 10-day rule states that female patients of childbearing age can only be x-rayed during the first 10 days of the patient’s menstrual cycle.If the patients menstrual cycle is outside of these dates and the x-ray required is urgent then a pregnancy test should be ordered on the ward and a hard copy of the results given to the radiographer.
6 FLUOROSCOPIC PROCEDURES AND PATIENT PREPARATION Barium Swallow, barium meal & barium followthrough :This is a fluoroscopic examination to visualize the G.I.Tpatient will be asked to take barium sulphate, which is a radio-opaque contrast agent. Using the fluoroscopy machine, the radiologist will study the transit of the barium through the G.I. tract .Preparation:The patient is required to be fasting for 8 hours prior to their exam.Female patients must adhere to the 10-day rule
7 .1. preparation 2. examination 3. aftercare Preparation: The following checklist summarizes the radiographer’s role and the various stages that are followed during an imaging procedure..1. preparation examination aftercarePreparation:a(Procedure B)patient C) x-ray roomprocedureReview imaging request formJustification of the examinationCheck previous studiesReview relevant departmental protocolsInfection control considerationsConsider specific radiation protection requirements
8 X-ray RoomRoom safe and tidyOptimization of exposure. X-ray generator set for correct procedureTube positioned for procedurePrepare image receptors/cassettesAccessory equipment available
9 PatientCommunicate effectivelyIntroduce yourself and state your professionCorrectly identify patientCheck pregnancy statusExplain procedure and gain consentPrepare patient if necessary, e.g. request they change into a gown
10 .2ExaminationPatient CareWash/clean your hands in sight of the patientCommunicate effectivelyBe friendly and sympatheticGive clear instructionsExplain what you are doingExplain why you are doing itInvite and answer any questions
11 Radiographic Procedure X-ray correct patientFollow department protocolsUse a precise techniqueBe quick, safe and efficientGet it right first timeWash/clean hands following the procedure
12 Radiation ProtectionCorrect protocolOnly essential people in the roomUse optimal exposureCollimate to area of interestApply lead protection if appropriate
13 .3Aftercare:Assessment of Image QualityPatientCommunicate effectivelyExplain what they need to do nextInvite and answer any questionsArrange transport if necessary
14 Special radiographic examinations Angiography: -cerebral, abdominalperipheral-arteriography and venography; lymphography, myelography,dental radiography,macroradiography,cardiac catheterizationinterventional radiography.