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 X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.  Several important discoveries have.

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Presentation on theme: " X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.  Several important discoveries have."— Presentation transcript:

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2  X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in  Several important discoveries have been made using X-rays. These penetrating rays are also used in many applications.  X-rays are produced when electrons strike a metal target.  The electrons are liberated from the heated filament and accelerated by a high voltage towards the metal target.  What Are They? Several important experiments around 1910 suggested that they are electromagnetic waves of shorter wavelength and higher energy than normal light.

3  The problems before x- rays were people suffering and dying with the reason that there were no sources to help cure these injuries and fractures.  People only knew they were hurt but they didn’t have a medicine or a doctor to help them.

4 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist. Who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays An achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in physics in 1901.

5  Wilhelm Roentgen, a German physicist, in November of 1895, was testing the properties of cathode tubes when he noticed that a bench about three feet away was emitting a strange glow.  He guessed that the tube was emitting energy beams that penetrated the heavy black paper he had secured around the tube, were traveling at least as far as the bench, and reacting with the metal the bench was made of, creating the strange glow.

6  An x-ray machine, like that used in a doctor's or a dentist's office, is really very simple. Inside the machine is an x-ray tube.  An electron gun inside the tube shoots high-energy electrons at a target made of heavy atoms, such as tungsten.  X-rays come out because of atomic processes induced by the energetic electrons shot at the target.

7  When a bone is broken, the first step in repair is to take an X ray to confirm the diagnosis and to provide a clear picture of the type of fracture and the degree of displacement and misalignment.

8  They would be probing their fracture and if they feel it wasn’t one hole piece that means it was broken.  Back then they never knew what’s wrong with them or if they were injured or had a fracture.  You only knew if you were in serious pain.  They would sometimes place a wood stick and they would wrap a strap around it. And it would take time to heel.

9  X-rays have changed peoples life’s in many ways for example people can now find out what’s wrong with them.  And also know how to cure themselves, and to know if there ok or if nothings wrong with them. X-rays are also used in the dentist’s office for examination and cleaning people’s teeth.  So for the amazing invention of x-rays no we have better teeth, healthy lungs, healthy bones and a better way to live.

10  As the wavelengths of light decrease, they increase in energy.  X-rays have smaller wavelengths and therefore higher energy than ultraviolet waves.  X-rays were first observed and documented in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, a German scientist who found them quite by accident when experimenting with vacuum tubes.

11  This is a picture of Rongtens wifes hand, it show her bones and her wedding ring

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13  The first x-ray was discover on 8 November 1895, produced and actually detected electromagnetic radiation.  Today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays, that invention earned him the first Nobel Prize in physics on 1901.

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16  The energy to generate X-rays for medical imaging comes from high voltage.  High voltage is applied to an X-ray tube to accelerate electrons across the space between the anode and cathode in the tube.  The higher the voltage, the more the electrons are accelerated. The electrons slam into the cathode, which is a metal target.  This "knocks loose" some electrons in the metallic crystal structure of the metal of the cathode, and when the electrons that have been slammed into give up energy to return to a "relaxed" state, they give off very high-energy electromagnetic radiation - X-rays.

17  X-rays are a wonderful addition to the world of medicine; they let doctors peer inside a patient without any surgery at all. It's much easier and safer to look at a broken bone using X-rays than it is to open a patient up.  But X-rays can also be harmful. In the early days of X- ray science, a lot of doctors would expose patients and themselves to the beams for long periods of time. Eventually, doctors and patients started developing radiation sickness, and the medical community knew something was wrong.  The problem is that X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation. When normal light hits an atom, it can't change the atom in any significant way. But when an X-ray hits an atom, it can

18  knock electrons off the atom to create an ion, an electrically charged atom. Free electrons then collide with other atoms to create more ions.

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20  As challenges, sometimes x-rays cant read very clear.  Or sometimes x-rays doesn’t show exactly whats wrong with you…like the picture below

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22  Back then they never knew what’s wrong with them or if they were injured or had a fracture.  You only knew if you were in serious pain. They would usually use a strap for there hand (something that can wrap there hand completely that was also tight on there hands).

23  1895 W. C. Röntgen, in physics, for the discovery of X-rays.  1914 M. von Laue, in physics, for the discovery of X-rays by crystals.  1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg, in physics, for the determination of crystal structures using X-rays.  1917 C. G. Barkla, in physics, for the discovery of the characteristic X- ray radiation of the elements.  1924 M. Siegbahn, in physics, for discoveries in the field of X-ray spectroscopy.  1927 A. H. Compton, in physics, for revealing the particle nature of X- rays in scattering experiments on electrons.  1936 P. Debye, in chemistry, for determining molecular structures by X- ray diffraction in gases.  1962 M. F. Perutz and J. C. Kendrew, in chemistry, for determining the structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin.

24 1964 D. Crowfoot Hodgkin, in chemistry, for the determination of the structure of penicillin and other important biochemical substances.  1976 W. N. Lipscomb, in chemistry, for the determination of boranes.  1979 A. M. Cormack and G. N. Hounsfield, in medicine, for the development of computerized tomography.  1981 M. Siegbahn, in physics, for developing high resolution electron spectroscopy.

25  1988 J. Deisenhofer, R. Huber and H. Michel, in chemistry, for the determination of protein structures crucial to photosynthesis.

26 "X-ray Photography." Wikipedia. Web. 27 Mar "X-ray Photography." Web. 27 Mar "X-ray Photography." Wiki Answers. Web. 27 Mar

27 "X-ray Photography." How Stuff Works. Web. 27 Mar "X-ray Photography." Web. 27 Mar

28  Thanks and I hope my project was factual and enjoyable…& thanks


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