4 Bewildering/Confusing Array of References! Just some!………………..BS 5266 pt 1: 2005 & pt 7(EN1838): 1999BS EN 12193: 1999BS >2000BS EN : 1999BS EN 50172: 2004BS EN 62034:2006RRO (Fire Safety) 2005Building Regs. Approved Doc. B 2007
5 Status Hierarchy EN Standards UK LAW BS EN 60598 2-22 Bldg Regs 2007 H & S Signs 1997RRO (Fire Safety) 2005EN StandardsBS ENBS EN 1838BS EN 50172BS EN 12193BS EN 62034BS Codesof PracticeBS 5266:1BS 5499:1-5Industry &Prof GuidesCIBSE LG12ICELHSE, etc
6 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 Objectives:To harmonise existing legislationTo create a regime based on risk assessment & fire prevention & mitigation measuresEnsure that fire safety facilities and equipment are maintained
11 Types of Emergency Lighting Defined EscapeLightingStandbyLightingEscapeRouteOpenAreaHigh RiskAreaLow-mountedway guidancesystem
12 High Risk Areas BS5266 pt 7:1999Safe Termination of Hazardous activitySafe passage / rescue access10% normal lighting – MIN 15 LUXUniformity > 0.1 min/avMight need UPS/ small Central Battery system
13 Types of Emergency Lighting Defined EscapeLightingStandbyLightingEscapeRouteOpenAreaHigh RiskAreaLow-mountedway guidancesystem
14 Open Areas (>60m2*) : Anti Panic BS5266 pt 7:1999 Or as determined by Risk AssessmentBuilding Regulations Approved Doc B 2007Illumination Level: 0.5 lux minimumUniformity (Max:Min)= 40:1Exclude 0.5m border
15 Types of Emergency Lighting Defined EscapeLightingStandbyLightingEscapeRouteOpenAreaHigh RiskAreaLow-mountedway guidancesystem
16 Escape Routes BS5266 pt 7:1999 1 lux min along centreline Uniformity (Max:Min)= 40:1(EN1838 “A” deviation – 0.2 lux min if Permanently Unobstructed)
17 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 All Defined Escape RoutesChanges To Route DirectionWithin 2 metres horizontal distance
18 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 EXIT DOORS (Intended for use in emergency)Within 2 metres horizontal distance
19 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 External escape routes may need lightingConsider muster points / roll callsWithin 2 metres horizontal distance
20 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 STAIRS / ESCALATORSFLOOR LEVEL CHANGES / MOVING WALKWAYSEach tread should receive direct light(Painting stair nosings in a light colour can assist safety)
21 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 Toilets > 8m2 floorAny windowless ToiletsAny facility for the disabled
22 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 FIRE ALARM CALL POINTSFIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTWithin 2 metres horizontal distanceNB - 5 lux minimum on floor if not on escape route
23 Essential Siting Of Emergency Luminaires BS5266 pt 7:1999 FIRST AIDSAFETY SIGNS & EQUIPMENTWithin 2 metres horizontal distanceNB - 5 lux minimum on floor if not on escape route
24 Emergency Signs BS EN 50172:2004Required to ensure ESCAPE ROUTES are APPARENT from ANY LOCATIONSeries of signs may be req’d.MAINTAINED where occupants will be unfamiliar with building layout
25 NB All signs should be of the same format Sign Formats & StatusNow ILLEGAL (since 1999)UK PREFERENCEBS5499-4:2000 (wht man – internally lit / green man externally lit.)MOST COMMONLY AVAILABLESI341 HSE Signs Directive FormatHTM65 – NHS HOSPITALSNB All signs should be of the same format
26 Externally or Internally Lit? BS5266 pt 7:1999 EXTERNALLY LITINTERNALLY LITh100 X h ( 15m?)100 lux vertical illumination (mains) and 5 lux (battery) (Minimum values)200 x h ( 30m?)> 2 cd/m2
29 Luminaire Photometric Data BS5266-1:2005 Spacing Tables via Dialux
30 zero reflection factors for all surfaces Direct light only BS5266-1:2005Use direct light only.No reflectances –EXCEPT if using uplighters (WHY?)zero reflection factors for all surfaces
31 Uniformity Requirements Escape Routes & Open Areas BS5266 pt 7:1999 Objective – use a number of lower output luminaires to get even light spread, not one high powered luminaire in centre.Max : Min = 40 : 1Escape Route 40 lux/1 luxOpen Area = 20 lux/0.5 lux
32 Individual Luminaire Failure BS EN 50172 Advised to use more than one luminaire in each compartment/zone if practical.Minimum 2 luminaires per compartment (where practical)Use more low powered luminaires rather than fewer higher powered
33 Avoiding Disability Glare BS5266 pt 7:1999 Consider where they are located and the problems of glare.BS specifies maximum brightness (luminance) at specific angles.
34 Conclusions BS5266-1:2005Client’s Fire Risk Assessment should be consultedGuidance needed on requirements over minimum levels and locationsPoints of emphasis need to be finalised!Designer undertakes legal responsibility! (Signed Declaration of Conformity req’d)
37 Categories of Operation BS5266-1:2005 TypeMode of OperationFacilitiesDuration (Self-contained only)XSelf-containedNon-maintainedAInc. test device1010 minZCentral System1MaintainedBInc. remote rest mode601 hour2Combined non-maintainedCInc. inhibiting mode1202 hour3Combined maintainedDHigh risk task luminaire1803 hour4Compound non-maintained5Compound maintained6Satellite
38 Maintained or Non Maintained ? BS5266-1:2005 Maintained Exit signs when building users will be unfamiliar with its layout.Maintained within common circulation areas of shopping malls.Maintained usually saves installation points (regular luminaires converted)Lamp Integrity needs close attentionTemperature/Battery life issuesWhich is better?Maintained luminaires are required where users are unfamiliar with layout.Non-maintained – Other applications.Apparent advantage of maintained – but consider effects of aging on lamp, heat on battery.
39 Luminaire Specifications BS EN 60598-2-22 CE Marked: declaring compliance with all relevant standards(Tech File includes EMC test certification)Makes site conversions very dubiousIn maintained luminaire (used for both normal and emergency usage) – heat can detrimentally effect battery performance and life.Spend much time in labs designing layout to ensure batteries are at coolest location, and testing in thermal chamber.At end of process, the luminaire is CE marked to declare compliance, including EMC radiation and should have a technical file with certificates and test records.Knowing work involved - query practice of contractors buying emergency gear and converting luminaires on site.
40 LEDsLight output now high enoughLong lifeLow power consumption
41 LED Exit Signs 100,000 hr life = over 11 years continuous illumination NiMh batteries – 8 years rated life
50 Stand-alone Luminaires & Exit Signs Each device tests itselfIndication by status LEDUse of bi-colour LEDsMay use audible sounderTest procedure – automatic but results need to be recorded manually every 30 daysHealthyFlashing Red = Faulty
51 Stand-alone Advantages Disadvantages Easy to specify Easy to install Simplifies testing proceduresReduces possibility of errorDisadvantagesIncreased cost – typically £30 - £40User has to remember to inspect on a regular basisTest results need to be manually recorded
52 Networked Monitoring Systems Luminaires & Signs linked back to central monitoring & reporting deviceLuminaire, zone & central status indicationDetailed test reportsNOT rely on central device to initiate emergency modeAlternative to stand-alone is a networked system that breaks the building down into logical zones, but all connected back to one central point.
53 Latest Generation Technology Remote reporting using web/Pro-active – system lets you know when there’s a faultMultiple BuildingsFault identificationReduces time spent diagnosing faultHelps ensure maintenance engineer arrives with correct partsRecords Archive
55 Networked Systems Disadvantages Advantages Increased capital cost Constant self-monitoringCentral status indication speeds up inspection processTest results are prepared/stored automaticallyPro-active – ideal for remote monitoringDisadvantagesIncreased capital costInstallation of signal cable & zone/central controllers – not so easy to retrofit
56 Summary Stand-alone Networked systems Easier to specify & install User must still inspect every monthManual record keepingNetworked systemsSimplifies inspection – usually to one central locationSignificant reduction in test/inspection costsAutomatic record generation & archivingPro-active remote reporting
57 Cost Comparison – Primary School Project 100 luminaires & exit signsStandard EmergencyStand-alone AutoTestNetworked Auto-Test (includes zone & centralised equipment)
58 Capital Outlay Option 1 – Standard Emergency Luminaires Option 2 – AutoTest Emergency LuminairesOption 3 – Networked SystemCost of Equipment & Installation£ 15,000£ 19,000£ 21,800100%127%145%
62 SummaryModest increase in capital outlay = large saving in testing/inspecting/ recording through life of buildingGreater peace of mind, compliance & security
63 ConclusionsStatutory requirement to provide effective emergency lightingCode of practice specifies requirementsClient’s Fire Safety Risk Assessment should be consultedTechnology can provide solutionsLife-cycle costs should be calculated, not just capital expenditure
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