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**LUBRICANT & LUBRICATION**

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**Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene Fuel Oil Oil Lubricant H.C. Oil Wax**

n-Parafin Gasoline Kerosene Fuel Oil Oil Lubricant H.C. Oil Wax Aromatic S & N Contaminant psi Hydrocracking Catalitic Treatment 430 – 550 C Additives H.C. Lube Oil

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Chemical Additives 1. Oxidation Inhibitor (O) 2. Rust Inhibitor (R) 3. Anti Wear & Extreme Pressure (EP) 4. Friction Modifier (W ) 5. Detergent & Dispersant (D) 6. Pour-point Depressant (P) 7. Foam Inhibitor (F) 8. Viscosity Index Improver (VI)

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Tabel hal. 25

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Synthetic Oil Hydrocarbon Poly Alpha-Olefins (PAOs)

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**t = m dU/dy Viscosity U Y F h X Newtonian Fluid F/A = m U/h**

m = (F/A) / (U/h) m = Shear Stress / Shear Rate

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**m = Absolute Viscosity (Dyne.s/cm2 - Poise)**

v = Kinematic Viscosity r = Density (grm/cm3) v = m / r (Stoke – St) (cSt – mm2/s) Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS)

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Tabel hal, 28

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**Viscosity vs Temperature**

log. log (v + 0.7) = A – B log T T = Temperature v = Kinematic viscosity A, B = Constants – given oil

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Vogel Equation b = Viscosity-Temp. Coeff

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Viscosity Index

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**L = Viscosity (40C) dari zero-VI oil**

H = viscosity (40C) dari 100-VI oil U = vsicosity (40C) dari Unkown-oil

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ASTM Y = Viscosity cSt(100 C) unkown oil

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Viscosity vs Pressure a = Pressure-viscosity Coeff.

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Roelands Equation C = konstanta – unit (196.1 MPa atau psi) Z = 0.6 = 0.4 – 0.8 synthetic oil

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