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Crude Oil GasolineKeroseneFuel OilOil Lubricant H.C. Oil Wax Aromatic S & N Contaminant Hydrocracking Catalitic Treatment psi 430 – 550 C H.C. Lube Oil Additives n-Parafin
Chemical Additives 1. Oxidation Inhibitor (O) 2. Rust Inhibitor (R) 3. Anti Wear & Extreme Pressure (EP) 4. Friction Modifier (W ) 5. Detergent & Dispersant (D) 6. Pour-point Depressant (P) 7. Foam Inhibitor (F) 8. Viscosity Index Improver (VI)
Tabel hal. 25
Synthetic Oil Hydrocarbon Poly Alpha-Olefins (PAOs)
Viscosity Y X U F Newtonian Fluid = dU/dy h F/A = U/h = (F/A) / (U/h) = Shear Stress / Shear Rate
= Absolute Viscosity (Dyne.s/cm2 - Poise) v = Kinematic Viscosity v = / (Stoke – St) (cSt – mm2/s) = Density (grm/cm3) Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS)
Tabel hal, 28
Viscosity vs Temperature log. log (v + 0.7) = A – B log T T = Temperature v = Kinematic viscosity A, B = Constants – given oil
Vogel Equation = Viscosity-Temp. Coeff
L = Viscosity (40C) dari zero-VI oil H = viscosity (40C) dari 100-VI oil U = vsicosity (40C) dari Unkown-oil
ASTM Y = Viscosity cSt(100 C) unkown oil
Viscosity vs Pressure = Pressure-viscosity Coeff.
Roelands Equation C = konstanta – unit (196.1 MPa atau psi) Z = 0.6 = 0.4 – 0.8 synthetic oil
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