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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry/macromolecules"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry/macromolecules
Biology ch 3 review Biochemistry/macromolecules

2 This variable is always placed on the x axis.

3 Independent variable – we control it

4 What is the optimal temperature for the enzyme lipase (shown in the graph below)? At what temperature would the enzymes become denatured?

5 Optimum temperature is 50°C
So much above that would denature the enzyme (break down the protein)

6 What is the independent variable in this graph. The dependent variable
What is the independent variable in this graph? The dependent variable? What is being tested? Results?

7 Independent variable – time
Dependent variable – growth (cm) Tested – soil type affect on plant growth Results – N and P had most growth

8 This forms when electrons are shared between 2 atoms.

9 Covalent bond

10 This element (along with hydrogen) is present in all organic compounds.

11 carbon

12 Carbon is unique because it likes to form _____ bonds with itself.

13 4

14 Large, organic molecules are known as this.

15 macromolecules

16 These are the two main types of nucleic acids in living organisms.


18 These are the elements that make carbohydrates.

19 C, H and O Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 1:2:1 ratio

20 This is the subunit used to build carbohydrate.

21 monosaccharides

22 This is another name for a long chain of sugars bonded together

23 Polysaccharide

24 2 functions of carbohyrdrates?

25 Quick energy Communication in cells Structure - cell walls in plants

26 These are the elements that make up fats.

27 C,H and O Carbon, hydrogen and carbon

28 This is another name for fats.

29 lipids

30 2 uses for fats.

31 Makes up cell membranes
Long term energy storage Waxes Triglycerides

32 Four subcategories of fats?

33 Fats & Fatty Acids Phospholipids Sterols Waxes

34 Why are lipids called hydrophobic or water-fearing?

35 They are nonpolar so not attracted to the polar water molecule
(fat/oil floats on water)

36 These are the elements used to make proteins.

37 C, H, O and N Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

38 These are the subunits that make up proteins.

39 Amino acids

40 Amin group (N) Carboxyl group – acid (COOH) R group – anything hydrogen

41 Many globular proteins function as this so chemical reactions can occur at a fast rate in living organisms.

42 enzymes

43 These two things will cause enzymes to become inactive (denatured)

44 Change in pH and temp

45 The liquid in the stomach has a pH of about 2
The liquid in the stomach has a pH of about 2. Which of the two enzymes would be active in the stomach?

46 pepsin

47 Consider the data on the relationship between pH and enzyme activity shown in the graph. Do enzymes typically function only at a specific pH, or can they function within a range of pH values?

48 Specific range of pH (and temp)

49 What does graph show about enzyme action and activation energy?

50 Enzymes lower activation energy
Really look at this graph - understand it?

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