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1 Basic Elements of Rochman, STP. MT Teknik Industri FT UNS 8/24/2014 basics of organization.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Basic Elements of Rochman, STP. MT Teknik Industri FT UNS 8/24/2014 basics of organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Basic Elements of Rochman, STP. MT Teknik Industri FT UNS 8/24/2014 basics of organization

2 2 Study Guide Organizing and Organization Structure Organizing and Organization Structure 6 Building Blocs of Organization Structure 6 Building Blocs of Organization Structure Job Design Job Design Job Grouping and Departmentalization Job Grouping and Departmentalization Reporting Relationships Reporting Relationships 8/24/2014 basics of organization

3 8/24/2014 basics of organization 3 Organisasi & Manajemen Definisasi Manajemen Definisasi Manajemen Proses kerjasama melalui orang-orang dan kelompok untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi (Hersey & Blancahad) Proses Manajemen Proses Manajemen PERENCANAAN ORGANIZING MOTIVATING CONTROLLING

4 8/24/2014 basics of organization 4 Management in organization Planning & Decision making Input from the Environment : Human resources Financial resources Physical resources Information resources organizing controlling Leading Goal attained Efficiency Effectively

5 8/24/2014 basics of organization 5 Kemampuan manajer Technical skill (pengetahuan, metode, teknik & peralatan) Human skill (motivasi, kepemimpinan) Conceptual skill (kompleksitas organisasi, tujuan sistem organisasi) Kemampuan Manajer dalam Organisasi

6 8/24/2014 basics of organization 6 Kemampuan manajemen & level organisasi Manajemen puncak Manajemen menengah Manajemen supervisi Kemampuan yang diperlukan Konceptual Manusia/sosial Teknis

7 8/24/2014 basics of organization 7 Organisasi sebagai sistem sosial SUBSISTEM ADMINISTRASI STRUKTUR SUBSISTEM INFORMASI SUBSISTEM EKONOMI TEKNOLOGI SUBSISTEM MANUSIA SOSIAL TUJUAN

8 8/24/2014 basics of organization 8 Def. Organisasi : Hubungan yang terpolakan diantara orang yang berhubungan dengan aktivitas yang saling berkaitan yang diarahkan pada tujuan tertentu. Organisasi & Pengaruh lingkungan Budaya sub lingkungan organisasi pesaing Kelompok konsumen Serikat buruh pemasok Pemilik saham Instansi pemerintah pelanggan

9 8/24/2014 basics of organization 9 Struktur Organisasi Diferensiasi vertikal & hirarki Diferensiasi vertikal & hirarki Span of Control Span of Control Jumlah bawahan yang menjadi tanggung jawab pimpinan. Sentralisasi kekuasaan Sentralisasi kekuasaan Formalisasi Formalisasi Peraturan formal yang terinci tertulis : mengatur perilaku dan membatasi kebebasan bawahan.

10 8/24/2014 basics of organization 10 Departementasi Departementasi Pengelompokan posisi & aktivitas dalam subunit yang terpisah (fungsi, produk, konsumen & geografis) Bentuk organisasi Bentuk organisasi Lini, lini staf, matrik, tim/panitia CEO MMMM MMMMMMMM

11 11 Job Design Job Design, the determination of an individual’s work-related responsibilities. Job Design, the determination of an individual’s work-related responsibilities. Job Specialization, degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down into smaller components Job Specialization, degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down into smaller components BenefitBenefit Workers can become proficient at task Workers can become proficient at task Transfer time between task decrease Transfer time between task decrease Specialized equipment can be developed Specialized equipment can be developed Employee replacement becomes easier Employee replacement becomes easier LimitationsLimitations Employee boredom and dissatisfaction Employee boredom and dissatisfaction Anticipated benefits do not always occur Anticipated benefits do not always occur 8/24/2014 basics of organization

12 12 Grouping Jobs : Departmentalization The process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement. The process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement. Rationale for Departmentalization Rationale for Departmentalization Organizational growth exceeds the owner-manager’s capacity to personally supervise all of organization.Organizational growth exceeds the owner-manager’s capacity to personally supervise all of organization. Additional managers are employed and assigned specific employees to supervise.Additional managers are employed and assigned specific employees to supervise. 8/24/2014 basics of organization

13 13 Departmentalization 4 Basic Types : 4 Basic Types : FunctionalFunctional ProductProduct CustomerCustomer LocationLocation 8/24/2014 basics of organization

14 14 Functional Departmentalization President Computers ManufacturingFinanceMarketing 8/24/2014 basics of organization

15 15 Functional Departmentalization Form Advantages Advantages Department can be staffed by expertsDepartment can be staffed by experts Supervision facilitatedSupervision facilitated Coordination within department is easierCoordination within department is easier Disadvantages Disadvantages Decision making becomes slow and bureaucratic Lose sight of organizational goals/issues Accountability and performance are difficult to monitor 8/24/2014 basics of organization

16 16 Product Departmentalization President ComputersPrinters ManufacturingFinanceMarketing Software 8/24/2014 basics of organization

17 17 Product Departmentalization Advantages Advantages Activities with one product can be integratedActivities with one product can be integrated Speed and effectiveness of decision makingSpeed and effectiveness of decision making Performance of these individual products can be assessedPerformance of these individual products can be assessed Disadvantages Disadvantages Focus on product at the exclusion of the rest of the organization Administrative costs may increase 8/24/2014 basics of organization

18 18 Customer Departmentalization form President Computers Manufacturing DallasPhoenix FinanceMarketing Industrial sales Customer sales 8/24/2014 basics of organization

19 19 Customer Departmentalization Advantage Advantage Skilled specialists can deal with unique customer needsSkilled specialists can deal with unique customer needs Disadvantage Disadvantage Large, administrative staff need to integrate activities of various departments 8/24/2014 basics of organization

20 20 Location Departementalization Form Prsident Computers ManufacturingMarketing Software MaretingDesign ChicagoSt. Louis 8/24/2014 basics of organization

21 21 Location Departmentalzation Advantage Advantage The organization can respond to unique customer and regional/environme ntal characteristicsThe organization can respond to unique customer and regional/environme ntal characteristics Disadvantage Disadvantage Large, administrative staff may be needed 8/24/2014 basics of organization

22 22 Establishing Reporting Relationships Chain of Command : a clear and distinct line of authority among the positions in an organization. Chain of Command : a clear and distinct line of authority among the positions in an organization. Unity of CommandUnity of Command Each person within an organization must have a clear reporting relationship to one and only one boss. Each person within an organization must have a clear reporting relationship to one and only one boss. Scalar PrincipleScalar Principle A clear and broken line of authority must extend from the bottom to the top of the organization A clear and broken line of authority must extend from the bottom to the top of the organization 8/24/2014 basics of organization

23 23 Continue Span of management (span of control) Span of management (span of control) The number of people who report to a particular managerThe number of people who report to a particular manager Narrow versus wideNarrow versus wide Graicunas : Subordinate interactions Graicunas : Subordinate interactions I = N(2N/2 + N -1)I = N(2N/2 + N -1) Davis Davis Operative span – 30 subordinatesOperative span – 30 subordinates Executive span – 3 to 9 subordinatesExecutive span – 3 to 9 subordinates Urwick Urwick Executive Span – 6 SubordinatesExecutive Span – 6 Subordinates 8/24/2014 basics of organization

24 24 Establishing Reporting Relationships Tall versus Flat Organizations Tall Organizations Tall Organizations More expensiveMore expensive Communication can be difficult because of the number of channels through which it must passCommunication can be difficult because of the number of channels through which it must pass Flat Organization Flat Organization Led to higher levels of employee morale and productivity More administrative responsibility for managers 8/24/2014 basics of organization

25 25 Tall Versus Flat Organization Tall Organization Flat Organization 8/24/2014 basics of organization

26 26 Factors Influencing the Span of Management Competence of the supervisor or subordinate Competence of the supervisor or subordinate Physical dispersion of subordinates Physical dispersion of subordinates Extent of non supervisory work in manager’s job Extent of non supervisory work in manager’s job Degree of required interaction Degree of required interaction Extent of standardized procedures Extent of standardized procedures Similarity of tasks being supervised Similarity of tasks being supervised Frequency of new problems Frequency of new problems Preferences of supervisors and subordinates Preferences of supervisors and subordinates 8/24/2014 basics of organization

27 27 Distributing Authority Authority Authority Power that has been legitimized by the organization.Power that has been legitimized by the organization. Delegation Delegation The process by which managers assign a portion of their total workload to others.The process by which managers assign a portion of their total workload to others. Reasons for delegation Reasons for delegation To enable the manager to get more work done by utilizing the skills and talents of subordinates.To enable the manager to get more work done by utilizing the skills and talents of subordinates. To foster the development of subordinates by having them participate in decision making and problem solving that allows them to learn about overall operations and improve their managerial skills.To foster the development of subordinates by having them participate in decision making and problem solving that allows them to learn about overall operations and improve their managerial skills. 8/24/2014 basics of organization

28 28 Parts of the Delegation Process Manager Subordinate Part 1 :Assigning responsibility Manager Subordinate Part 1 :Creating accountability Manager Subordinate Part 1 :Granting authority 8/24/2014 basics of organization

29 29 Delegation Problems in the Delegation Process Superior Superior ReluctanceReluctance DisorganizationDisorganization Subordinate’s success threatens superior’s advancementSubordinate’s success threatens superior’s advancement TrustTrust Subordinate Subordinate Reluctance No rewards for the acceptance of delegated tasks Risk avoidence 8/24/2014 basics of organization

30 30 Coordinating Activities Coordiantion Coordiantion The process of linking the activities of the various departments of the organization.The process of linking the activities of the various departments of the organization. The Need for Coordination The Need for Coordination Departments and work groups are interdependent; the greater the interdependence, the greater the need for coordination.Departments and work groups are interdependent; the greater the interdependence, the greater the need for coordination. 8/24/2014 basics of organization

31 31 Structural Coordination Techniques The managerial hierarchy The managerial hierarchy Rules and Procedures Rules and Procedures Liaison rules Liaison rules Task Forces Task Forces Integrating departments Integrating departments 8/24/2014 basics of organization

32 32 Differentiating Between Positions Line positions Line positions Position in the direct chain of commond that are responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goalsPosition in the direct chain of commond that are responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goals Staff Positions Staff Positions Intended to provide expertise, advice, and support to line positionsIntended to provide expertise, advice, and support to line positions Administrative intensity Administrative intensity The degree to which managerial position are concentrated in staff positionsThe degree to which managerial position are concentrated in staff positions 8/24/2014 basics of organization

33 33 Differentiating Between Position Line and Staff structure CEO President President USA Senior vice president marketing Senior Vice President Store Merchandising Vice president Divisional Merchandising Vice President Divisional Merchandising Vice president planning Vice president Physical Distribution Corporate staff Finance and administration Real estate MIS Architecture and construction Treasure Controller Attorney 8/24/2014 basics of organization

34 34 References 8/24/2014 basics of organization


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