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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chapter 7 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2 7 - 2 Chapter Outline Physical changes Cognitive changes Language development Early childhood education © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

3 7 - 3 Physical Changes Body growth and change Motor development Sleep Nutrition and exercise Illness and death © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

4 7 - 4 Body Growth and Change Height and weight – Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year during early childhood – Growth patterns vary individually – Two most important contributors to height differences Ethnic origin and nutrition – Growth hormone deficiency: Produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the body to grow © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

5 7 - 5 Body Growth and Change The brain – Brain growth slows during early childhood Brain reaches 95% of adult volume by 6 years Changes in child’s brain structure – Myelination: Nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells – Rapid, distinct spurts of growth especially in the frontal lobes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

6 7 - 6 Figure 7.1 - A Myelinated Nerve Fiber © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

7 7 - 7 Motor Development Gross motor skills – Simple movements at age 3 – More adventurous at age 4 – Hair-raising risks at age 5 Fine motor skills – Still clumsy at 3 years – Improved fine motor coordination at 4 years – Body coordination by 5 years © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

8 7 - 8 Sleep Should sleep 11-13 hours each night without interruption Can experience narcolepsy, insomnia, and nightmares © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

9 7 - 9 Sleep Children’s sleep problems and negative developmental outcome – Alcohol use problems in adolescence – Attention problems – Impaired brain development – Overweight © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

10 7 - 10 Nutrition and Exercise Overweight young children – Serious health problems in early childhood – Strongly influenced by caregivers’ behavior – Categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight Determined by body mass index (BMI) – U.S. has second highest rate of childhood obesity Exercise should be a daily occurrence © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

11 7 - 11 Nutrition and Exercise Malnutrition in young children from low- income families – 11 million preschool children are experiencing malnutrition – Biggest problem is iron deficiency anemia © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

12 7 - 12 Illness and Death The United States – Leading causes of death in U.S. children are: Motor vehicle accidents Cancer Cardiovascular disease – Children’s safety – Environmental tobacco smoke © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

13 7 - 13 Figure 7.2 - Main Causes of Death in Children 1 through 4 Years of Age © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

14 7 - 14 Illness and Death State of illness and health of the world’s children – Devastating effects of health occur in countries with high poverty rates – Dramatic increase in deaths due to HIV/AIDS, especially in poor countries © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

15 7 - 15 Cognitive Changes Piaget’s preoperational stage Vygotsky’s theory Information processing © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

16 7 - 16 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Preoperational stage – Piaget’s second stage – Ages 2 to 7 years – Children represent the world with words, images, and drawings Form stable concepts and begin to reason Cognitions are dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

17 7 - 17 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Operations: Reversible – Mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically Symbolic function substage: Child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

18 7 - 18 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Egocentrism: Inability to distinguish one’s own perspective from someone else’s Animism: Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

19 7 - 19 Figure 7.4 - The Three Mountains Task © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

20 7 - 20 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Intuitive thought substage: Children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions Centration and the limits of preoperational thought – Centration: Centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others – Conservation: Altering a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

21 7 - 21 Figure 7.6 - Piaget’s Conservation Task © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

22 7 - 22 Figure 7.7 - Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

23 7 - 23 Vygotsky’s Theory Children think and understand primarily through social interaction Zone of proximal development (ZPD): Range of tasks that are too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance Scaffolding - Changing the level of support © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

24 7 - 24 Vygotsky’s Theory Language and thought – Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks – Private speech - Use of language for self- regulation – Inner speech becomes their thoughts – More private speech = more social competence © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

25 7 - 25 Vygotsky’s Theory Teaching strategies - Vygotsky’s theory can be applied to education – Assess child’s ZPD – Use the child’s ZPD in teaching – Use more-skilled peers as teachers – Place instruction in a meaningful context – Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

26 7 - 26 Vygotsky’s Theory Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory – Social constructivist approach: Emphasizes social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed through social interaction © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

27 7 - 27 Figure 7.10 - Comparison of Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s Theories © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

28 7 - 28 Information Processing Attention – Focusing of mental resources on select information – Executive attention Action planning Allocating attention to goals Error detection and compensation Monitoring progress on tasks Dealing with difficult circumstances © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

29 7 - 29 Information Processing – Sustained attention: Focused and extended engagement with: Object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment – Deficiencies in attention Salient versus relevant dimensions Planfulness © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

30 7 - 30 Information Processing Memory - Retention of information over time – Short-term: Individuals can retain information up to 30 seconds with no rehearsal – Assessing short-term memory - Memory-span task © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

31 7 - 31 Figure 7.12 - Developmental Changes in Memory Span © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

32 7 - 32 Information Processing How accurate are young children’s long-term memories? – There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion – There are individual differences in susceptibility – Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

33 7 - 33 Information Processing Executive functioning: Umbrella-like concept that consists of: Higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex – Managing one’s thoughts to engage in goal- directed behavior and self-control © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

34 7 - 34 Information Processing Theory of mind: Awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others – Developmental changes Age 18 months–3 years - Children begin to understand three mental states – Perceptions, desires, and emotions © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

35 7 - 35 Information Processing Age 3 to 5 years - Children understand false beliefs Age 5 to 9 years - Appreciation of the mind Age 7+ years - Understand the beliefs and thoughts of others – Individual differences © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

36 7 - 36 Figure 7.14 - Developmental Changes in False-Belief Performance © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

37 7 - 37 Language Development Understanding phonology and morphology Changes in syntax and semantics Advances in pragmatics Young children’s literacy © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

38 7 - 38 Understanding Phonology and Morphology During preschool years, children: – Become sensitive to the sounds of spoken words – Produce all the sounds of their language – Demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules Use plurals, possessives, prepositions, articles, and verb forms © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

39 7 - 39 Changes in Syntax and Semantics Learn and apply rules of syntax Children learn the words – They hear most often – For things and events that interest them – Better in responsive and interactive contexts than in passive contexts © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

40 7 - 40 Changes in Syntax and Semantics – Best in contexts that are meaningful – Best when they access clear information about word meaning – Best when grammar and vocabulary are considered © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

41 7 - 41 Advances in Pragmatics Adapt their speech in different settings Young children’s literacy – Positive orientation toward reading and writing must be developed – Importance of early language skills Phonological awareness Readiness for school Reading achievement in high school © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

42 7 - 42 Early Childhood Education Variations in early childhood education Education for young children who are disadvantaged Controversies in early childhood education © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

43 7 - 43 Variations in Early Childhood Education Child-centered kindergarten: Education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development Montessori approach: Child is given freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

44 7 - 44 Variations in Early Childhood Education Developmentally appropriate and inappropriate education – Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP): Typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

45 7 - 45 Early Childhood Education Education for young children who are disadvantaged – Project head start: Compensatory program designed to provide children from low-income families: Opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school – Controversies in early childhood education Curriculum controversy Universal preschool education © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.


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