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Children Cognitive Development In Early Childhood 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Children Cognitive Development In Early Childhood 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Children Cognitive Development In Early Childhood 9

2 Piagets Preoperational Stage Operations: internalized set of actions Preoperational stage –Ages 2 to 7 –Stable concepts formed –Mental reasoning, magical beliefs emerge –Cannot reverse mental actions –Contains 2 substages: symbolic function and intuitive Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

3 Piagets Preoperational Stage Symbolic Function Stage First substage of preoperational thought –Occurs in ages 2 to 4, imaginative drawings –Ability to mentally represent object not present –Thoughts limited by beliefs: Egocentrism: inability to distinguish own perspectives from those of others Animism: inanimate objects are life-like Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

4 The Three Mountains Task View 1 Child seated here (a) (b) (d) (c) View 2 Child seated here (a) (b) (d) (c)

5 The Symbolic Drawings of Young Children (b) 11-year-olds drawing, which is more realistic and less inventive (a) 3½-year-olds a pelican kissing a seal

6 Piagets Preoperational Stage Intuitive Thought Substage –Uses primitive reasoning, seeks answers to all Occurs about 4 to 7 years of age –Limits in preoperational thought: Centration: focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others Conservation: realizes altering objects substance does not change it quantitatively Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

7 Piagets Conservation Task (b)(a) A B C

8 Vygotskys Theory Social constructionist approach –Focuses on cognitive development –Children: active construction of knowledge and understanding by actions and interactions Depends on tools used by society Shaped by cultural context Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

9 Vygotskys Theory The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) –Lower limit: what child achieves independently –Upper limit: what can be achieved with assistance of able instructor –Cognitive skills in process of maturing –Scaffolding: changing level of support over course of teaching session to fit childs current performance level Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

10 Vygotskys Theory Language and Thought –Childrens language uses solving tasks and social communication Plans, monitors, guides behavior Private speech: self-regulation –All mental functions have external, social origins –Ages 3-7: external to internal speech transition Internalized egocentric speech is thoughts Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

11 Vygotskys Theory Teaching Strategies –Assess and use childs ZPD in teaching –Use more-skilled peers as teachers –Monitor and encourage private speech use –Place instruction in meaningful context –Transform classroom with Vygotskys ideas Tools of the Mind –Visitor presentations, field trips, theme activities, journal and story writing, reading Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

12 Vygotskys Theory Evaluating the theory: –Inner speech important to development –Social interaction affects learning/knowledge –Extends endpoint of cognitive development –Teachers serve as facilitators, Piaget agrees –Criticisms: Age-related changes not specific enough Over-emphasized role of language Socioemotional-cognitive link needs more Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

13 Information Processing Explores how child processes information –Limitations and advances on: Ability to focus attention Develop strategies and store memories Understand mental processes of self, others Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

14 Information Processing Attention –Focusing of cognitive resources –Visual attention dramatically increases during preschool years; still has deficits Executive attention: –Action planning, focus on goals, detects errors, deals with novel or difficult circumstances Sustained attention: –Focused, extended engagement with object, task, event, etc. Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

15 The Planfulness of Attention In 3 pairs of houses, the windows were different In 3 pairs of houses, all windows were identical J (b) (a) J By filming the reflection in childrens eyes, one could determine what they looked at, how long they looked, and the sequence of their eye movements.

16 Information Processing Memory –Retention of information over time –Implicit memory –Explicit memory comes in many forms Short-term: retained up to 30 seconds –Greatest increase during early childhood Long term: unlimited –Varies among individuals, affected by age and experiences Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

17 Developmental Changes in Memory Span In one study: memory span increased from 3 digits at age 2 to 5 digits at age 7 Adults Age (years) Digit Span

18 Information Processing Accuracy of childrens long-term memories –Usually increases with age –Memory improves with cues and prompts –Age differences in suggestion susceptibility –Individual differences in susceptibility –Interviewing techniques can distort reports even when absence of motivation to falsify (false memories) –Many factors affect reliability of eyewitness testimony Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

19 Information Processing Strategies and Problem Solving –Strategies: deliberate mental activities to improve processing information –Toddlers can learn a strategy –Early childhood: stimulus-driven changes to goal-directed problem solving –Some cognitive inflexibility in ages 3 to 4 due to lack of understanding Three Views of Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood

20 Young Childrens Literacy Re-examining early education in U.S. –Concerns about abilities to read and write –Supportive environment needed earlier –Precursors to literacy and academic success: Language skills Phonological and syntactic knowledge Letter identification Conceptual knowledge about print Conventions and functions of print How Young Children Develop Language

21 Variations in Early Childhood Education 38 states publicly fund preschool programs –Child-centered Kindergarten Educate the whole child Instruction: interests, needs, learning style Stress how learned; not what is learned Play is important, various activities used Important Features of Young Childrens Education

22 Variations in Early Childhood Education Preschool programs –Montessori approach Considerable freedom and spontaneity Encourage decisions, teacher as facilitator Self-regulated, independent problem solving Effective time management, responsibility –Criticisms: Deemphasizes verbal interaction, neglects social development, restricts imagination Important Features of Young Childrens Education

23 Variations in Early Childhood Education Developmentally appropriate education –Children Learn best from active, hands-on teaching Need individual differences considered Need socioemotional development Developmentally inappropriate education Rely on abstract paper-and-pencil activities Extensive use of rote drills, seatwork, tests Important Features of Young Childrens Education

24 Literacy and Early Childhood Education Reading and Writing –Children should experience feelings of success and pride in early reading and writing exercises –Early efforts should be encouraged –Children need models to emulate Math –Early childhood educators need to introduce mathematical concepts, methods, and language –Special concerns for low-SES children Important Features of Young Childrens Education

25 Educating Young Children Who Are Disadvantaged 1965: U.S. tries to break cycle of poverty –Project Head Start To provide opportunity for children from low- income families to acquire experiences, skills important for school success Not all programs are created equal Most provide quality childhood education Important Features of Young Childrens Education

26 Controversies in Early Childhood Education Curriculum controversies –What to teach, how to teach it, who needs it –Is preschool education necessary for all? Should there be universal preschool quality? –Does preschool matter? Home environments and parents vary –What is required for school readiness? Reforms continue, inadequacies recognized Important Features of Young Childrens Education

27 Controversies in Early Childhood Education Caregiver activities necessary in earliest years to ensure readiness for school –Encourage exploration, mentor in basic skills –Celebrate developmental advances –Research and extend new skills –Protect from inappropriate disapproval, testing, and punishment, guide and limit behavior Some parents hold children back from entering school for an additional year Important Features of Young Childrens Education


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