Presentation on theme: "Modul – 2 Sistem Transmisi TE-09-1313 2 sks Tim Bidang Studi Telekomunikasi Multimedia (Achmad Ansori, Devy Kuswidiastuti, Gatot Kusrahardjo, M Aries Purnomo)"— Presentation transcript:
Modul – 2 Sistem Transmisi TE sks Tim Bidang Studi Telekomunikasi Multimedia (Achmad Ansori, Devy Kuswidiastuti, Gatot Kusrahardjo, M Aries Purnomo) 1TE Transmisi-1
TRANSMISI The transfer of information from one point to one or more other points by means of signals ( Rec ITU-R V ) 2TE Transmisi-1
Point to point Communication provided by a link, for example, a radio-relay link between two stations located at specified fixed points. STL ( Studio to Transmitter Link ) TRANSMISI - (4) 6TE Transmisi-1
Point to Multipoint Communication provided by links, for example, radio-relay links between a single station located at a specified fixed point and a number of stations located at specified fixed points. Contoh : TV Cable TRANSMISI - (5) 7TE Transmisi-1
Point to Area Communication provided by links between a station located at a specified fixed point and any number of stations located at non-specified points in a given area which is the coverage area of the station located at the fixed point. Contoh : Stasiun Radio FM Stasiun Televisi TRANSMISI - (6) 8TE Transmisi-1
Multipoint to Point ( Data Collecting ) TRANSMISI – (7) 9TE Transmisi-1 Contoh : Wireless sensor
SINYAL A physical phenomenon one or more of whose characteristics may vary to represent information. NOTE – The physical phenomenon may be for instance an electromagnetic wave or acoustic wave and the characteristic may be an electric field, a voltage or a sound pressure. ( Rec ITU-R V ) 11TE Transmisi-1
Jenis Sinyal Analog Diskrit 12TE Transmisi-1
Sinyal Analog (1) A signal one of whose characteristic quantities follows continuously the variations of another physical quantity representing information. ITU T G.701 : vocabulary of digital transmission and multiplexing, and pulse code modulation (PCM) terms, Karakteristik : Amplitudo Frekuensi Phase 13TE Transmisi-1
Sinyal Analog (2) + - T = periode = 1/f Amplitudo t 1 Hertz (Hz) = 1 cps 14TE Transmisi-1
Sinyal Analog (3) 15TE Transmisi-1
Discretely-timed signal (1) A signal composed of successive elements in time, each element having one or more characteristics which can convey information, for example, its duration, its waveform and its amplitude. ITU T G.701 : vocabulary of digital transmission and multiplexing, and pulse code modulation (PCM) terms, Karakteristik : Amplitudo Lebar ( durasi ) Bentuk gelombang 16TE Transmisi-1
Discretely-timed signal (2) 17TE Transmisi-1
Sinyal Digital (1) A discretely timed signal in which information is represented by a number of well-defined discrete values that one of its characteristic quantities may take in time. NOTE – The term may be qualified to indicate the digit rate, for example: 140 Mbit/s digital signal. ITU T G.701 : vocabulary of digital transmission and multiplexing, and pulse code modulation (PCM) terms, 18TE Transmisi-1
19 signal element A part of a digital signal, characterized by its discrete timing and its discrete value, and used to represent a digit. Digit A member selected from a finite set. binary figure One of the two figures (that is, 0 or 1) used in the representation of numbers in binary notation. binary digit (bit) A member selected from a binary set NOTES 1. Bit is an abbreviation for binary digit. 2. In the interest of clarity, it is recommended that the term bit should not be used in two-condition start-stop modulation instead of unit element.
TE Transmisi-120 Octet A group of eight binary digits or eight signal elements representing binary digits operated upon as an entity. code word [character signal] A set of signal elements representing the quantized value of a sample in PCM. NOTE – In PCM, the term PCM word may be used in this sense.
TE Transmisi-121 Sinyal : A physical phenomenon one or more of whose characteristics may vary to represent information. NOTE – The physical phenomenon may be for instance an electromagnetic wave or acoustic wave and the characteristic may be an electric field, a voltage or a sound pressure. ( Rec ITU-R V )
Informasi Information : Intelligence or knowledge capable of being represented in forms suitable for communication, storage or processing. Suara / Voice : percakapan (speech), musik Tanda-tanda / isyarat Tulisan ( text ) Gambar : diam, bergerak ( video ) Gabungan ( Multimedia ) 22TE Transmisi-1
Characteristics of signal TE Transmisi-123
TE Transmisi-124 NOTE – The physical phenomenon may be for instance an electromagnetic wave or acoustic wave and the characteristic may be an electric field, a voltage or a sound pressure. ( Rec ITU-R V )
Satuan (1) Daya ( Power ) : kiloWatt (kW), Watt (W),milliWatt (mW)), mikroWatt (µW), picoWatt (pW) 1 kW = W = 10E3 W = mW = 10E6 mW = W = 10E9 W = pW = 10E15 pW 25TE Transmisi-1
Satuan (2) 1 pW = 0, W = 10E-6 W = 0, mW = 10E-9 mW = 0, W = 10E-12 W = 0, kW = 10E-15 kW 26TE Transmisi-1
Satuan (3) Tegangan ( Voltage ) : kiloVolt (kV), Volt (V), milliVolt (mV), mikroVolt (µV) Arus ( Current ) : Ampere (A), milliAmpere (mA), mikroAmpere (µA) 27TE Transmisi-1
Satuan (5) Kuat Medan Listrik : Volt/meter ( V/m ), µVolt/meter ( µV/m ) 29TE Transmisi-1
Daya, Tegangan dan Arus Daya = Tegangan x Arus Satuan : Daya : Watt, Tegangan : Volt, Arus : Ampere (Amp) P = V x I V = I x R dimana R : tahanan, Ohm ( ) 30TE Transmisi-1
Model Sistem Komunikasi Listrik Media Transducer PemancarPenerima Informasi - Wire / kawat / kabel - Wireless / radio / optik 31TE Transmisi-1
32 Elements of a Communication System
TE Transmisi-133 Noise (in telecommunication); Any variable physical phenomenon apparently not conveying information and which may be superimposed on, or combined with, a wanted signal. Interference (to a wanted signal): Disturbance of the reception of a wanted signal caused by interfering signals, noise or electromagnetic disturbance. NOTE : The term radio-frequency noise and radio-frequency interference are defined in Rec ITU-R V.573.
TE Transmisi-134 Radio (frequency) noise : A time-varying electromagnetic phenomenon having components in the radio-frequency range, apparently not conveying Information and which may be superimposed on, or combined with, a wanted signal. Radio-frequency disturbance : Any electromagnetic phenomenon having components in the radio-frequency range, which may degrade the performance of a device, equipment or system, or affect adversely living or inert matter. Note : A radio-frequency disturbance may be a radio-frequency noise, an unwanted signal or a change in the propagation medium itself.
TE Transmisi-135 Radio-frequency interference (RFI) : Degradation of the reception of a wanted signal caused by a radio-frequency disturbance. Interfering source : An emission, radiation, or induction which is determined to be a cause of interference in a radiocommunication system.
TE Transmisi-136 Signal-to-interference ratio; signal/interference ratio : The ratio, generally expressed in decibels, of the power of the wanted signal to the total power of interfering signals and noise, evaluated in specified conditions at a specified point of a transmission channel. Note 1 : A distinction is made, for example, between: – at the receiver input, the radio-frequency (RF) signal-to-interference ratio; – at the receiver output, the audio-frequency (AF) signal-to-interference ratio and the video frequency (VF) signal-to-interference ratio. Note 2 : In each individual case, the noise and interfering signals taken into account should be specified. Note 3 : The term signal-to-disturbance ratio or its abbreviated form signal/disturbance ratio, which is already used for electromagnetic compatibility, may be used as a synonym.
TE Transmisi-137 Spot noise temperature (of a one-port network) : The exchangeable noise power spectral density at a given frequency of a one-port electrical network, divided by Boltzmanns constant. ( k = 1, e-23 J/ºK ) Note 1 : This definition assumes that quantum effects are negligible. Note 2 : The spot noise temperature has the sign of the real part of the network impedance. Note 3 : If the network has an impedance with a positive real part, its noise temperature at a given frequency equals the thermodynamic temperature to which a resistor equal in value to the real part of the impedance should be brought in order to obtain an available power of thermal noise equal to the available power of the noise of the network at the same frequency. Note 4 : A receiving antenna can be regarded as a one-port electrical network when viewed from its output port.
TE Transmisi-138 Equivalent (spot) noise temperature (of a linear two-port network) : Symbol: T( f ) The amount by which at a given frequency the noise temperature of a one-port electrical network connected to the input of a given linear two-port electrical network would have to be increased, if the noise due to this two-port network was temporarily suppressed, in order to cause the noise power spectral density at the output frequency corresponding to input frequency, to be the same as that of the total noise of the one-port and two-port networks. Note 1 – This definition assumes that quantum phenomena are negligible. Note 2 – The equivalent spot noise temperature of a two-port network is dependent on the impedance of the one-port network connected to input.
TE Transmisi-139 Spot noise factor, spot noise figure (of a linear two-port network) : Symbol: F( f ) The ratio of the exchangeable power spectral density of the noise appearing at a given frequency at the output of a given linear two-port electrical network, to the spectral density which would be present at the output if the only source of noise were the thermal noise due to a one-port electrical network connected to the input and which is assumed to have at all frequencies a noise temperature equal to the reference thermodynamic temperature fixed, by convention, around 290 K. 290 K = 17ºC
TE Transmisi-140 Note 1: The spot noise factor F( f ) is related to the equivalent spot noise temperature T( f ) as follows: where T is the thermodynamic reference temperature. Note 2 : The value of the ratio F( f ) may be expressed in decibels. In English, the term noise factor is generally employed when the ratio is expressed arithmetically, and noise figure is employed when the ratio is expressed in decibels.