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RF Fundamentals Lecture 3. 2 Objectives Describe RF loss and gain, and how it can be measured List some of the characteristics of RF antenna transmissions.

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Presentation on theme: "RF Fundamentals Lecture 3. 2 Objectives Describe RF loss and gain, and how it can be measured List some of the characteristics of RF antenna transmissions."— Presentation transcript:

1 RF Fundamentals Lecture 3

2 2 Objectives Describe RF loss and gain, and how it can be measured List some of the characteristics of RF antenna transmissions Describe the different types of antennas

3 3 RF Components

4 4 Units

5 5 Free space path loss calculation

6 6 Units

7 7 RF Measurement: RF Math RF power measured by two units on two scales: –Linear scale: Using milliwatts (mW) Reference point is zero Does not reveal gain or loss in relation to whole –Relative scale: Reference point is the measurement itself Often use logarithms Measured in decibels (dB) 10’s and 3’s Rules of RF Math: Basic rule of thumb in dealing with RF power gain and loss

8 8 Understanding DBs

9 9 RF Measurement: RF Math (continued) Table 3-3: The 10’s and 3’s Rules of RF Math

10 10 RF Measurement: RF Math (continued) dBm: Reference point that relates decibel scale to milliwatt scale Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP): Power radiated out of antenna of a wireless system –Includes intended power output and antenna gain –Uses isotropic decibels (dBi) for units Reference point is theoretical antenna with 100 percent efficiency

11 11 Understanding Dbms

12 12 RF Measurement: WLAN Measurements In U.S., FCC defines power limitations for WLANs –Limit distance that WLAN can transmit Transmitter Power Output (TPO): Measure of power being delivered to transmitting antenna Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI): Used to determine dBm, mW, signal strength percentage Table 3-4: IEEE b and g EIRP

13 13 Understanding Dbs and mWs

14 14 Dbms and mW

15 15 RSSI and SNR

16 16 EIR

17 17 Rules 10 and 3s

18 18 Rules 10s and 3s

19 19 Rules of 10s and 3s

20 20 Example

21 21 Example

22 22 Example

23 23 Example

24 24 Example 2

25 25 Example 2

26 26 Example 2

27 27 Example 2

28 28 Antenna Concepts Radio waves transmitted/received using antennas Figure 3-24: Antennas are required for sending and receiving radio signals

29 29 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions Polarization: Orientation of radio waves as they leave the antenna Figure 3-25: Vertical polarization

30 30 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) Wave propagation: Pattern of wave dispersal Figure 3-26: Sky wave propagation

31 31 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) Figure 3-27: RF LOS propagation

32 32 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) Because RF LOS propagation requires alignment of sending and receiving antennas, ground-level objects can obstruct signals –Can cause refraction or diffraction –Multipath distortion: Refracted or diffracted signals reach receiving antenna later than signals that do not encounter obstructions Antenna diversity: Uses multiple antennas, inputs, and receivers to overcome multipath distortion

33 33 RF line of sight

34 34 RF Line of sight

35 35 Line of sight

36 36 Line of sight

37 37 Line of sight

38 38 Fresnel Zone

39 39 Fresnel Zone

40 40 Fresnel Zone

41 41 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) Determining extent of “late” multipath signals can be done by calculating Fresnel zone Figure 3-28: Fresnel zone

42 42 Fresnel zone

43 43 Terrain effects on RF

44 44 Weather effects on RF

45 45 Rain effects in RF

46 46 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) As RF signal propagates, it spreads out –Free space path loss: Greatest source of power loss in a wireless system –Antenna gain: Only way for an increase in amplification by antenna Alter physical shape of antenna –Beamwidth: Measure of focusing of radiation emitted by antenna Measured in horizontal and vertical degrees

47 47 Characteristics of RF Antenna Transmissions (continued) Table 3-5: Free space path loss for IEEE b and g WLANs

48 48 Antenna Types and Their Installations Two fundamental characteristics of antennas: –As frequency gets higher, wavelength gets smaller Size of antenna smaller –High-gain antennas offer larger coverage areas than low-gain antennas at same input power level Omni-directional antenna: Radiates signal in all directions equally –Most common type of antenna

49 49 Antenna Types and Their Installations (continued) Semi-directional antenna: Focuses energy in one direction –Primarily used for short and medium range remote wireless bridge networks Highly-directional antennas: Send narrowly focused signal beam –Generally concave dish-shaped devices –Used for long distance, point-to-point wireless links

50 50 Antenna Types and Their Installations (continued) Figure 3-29: Omni-directional antenna

51 51 Antenna Types and Their Installations (continued) Figure 3-30: Semi-directional antenna

52 52 WLAN Antenna Locations and Installation Because WLAN systems use omni-directional antennas to provide broadest area of coverage, APs should be located near middle of coverage area Antenna should be positioned as high as possible If high-gain omni-directional antenna used, must determine that users located below antenna area still have reception

53 53 Summary A type of electromagnetic wave that travels through space is called a radiotelephony wave or radio wave An analog signal is a continuous signal with no breaks in it A digital signal consists of data that is discrete or separate, as opposed to continuous The carrier signal sent by radio transmissions is simply a continuous electrical signal and the signal itself carries no information

54 54 Summary (continued) Three types of modulations or changes to the signal can be made to enable it to carry information: signal height, signal frequency, or the relative starting point Gain is defined as a positive difference in amplitude between two signals Loss, or attenuation, is a negative difference in amplitude between signals RF power can be measured by two different units on two different scales

55 55 Summary (continued) An antenna is a copper wire or similar device that has one end in the air and the other end connected to the ground or a grounded device There are a variety of characteristics of RF antenna transmissions that play a role in properly designing and setting up a WLAN

56 56 Lab 2 LAB A


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