2 Cellular TelephonyDesigned to provide communication between two mobile (moving) units, called mobile stations (MSs), or between one mobile unit and one stationary unit, often called a land unit.Service provider must be to locate and track a caller, assign a channel to the call, and transfer the channel from BS to BS as the caller moves out of range.
3 Cellular system Base station antenna (3 sector) 1/3rd of cell is covered by each sector of antenna
4 How cellular telephone systems work The area (a city, or a part of town) is divided into a number of cells (typically 1 to 12 miles in radius, but can be smaller for more crowded areas) and a base station is positioned within each cellAdjacent cells assigned different set of frequencies to avoid interferenceIf a user (mobile phone/ station) is within a particular cell, the call is handled by the corresponding base station within that cell
5 (Cont.)As a user moves from one cell to another, the call is “handed over” to the base station of the other cell-This is called handoffThe handoff is hopefully soft (transparent) to the user instead of hard handoff.
6 (Cont.)the signal from a mobile unit to a base station (BS) is transmitted by radio waves at a certain frequency through the airThe signal from the mobile unit arrives at the antenna of the base stationThe signal from the base station is sent to a mobile switching center (MSC) and possibly to a telephone central office through electrical wires where it is switched to the appropriate destinationMSC responsible for connecting calls, recording call information, and billing
9 Transmitting The caller enter a phone number (7 or 10 digits) MS scans the band seeking for a channel with strong signalSend the data to the closest BS using that channelBS relays data to MSC and then to telephone central officeIf the called party is available, MSC assigns an unused voice channel to the call and a connection is established
10 ReceivingWhen a mobile phone (MS) is called, the telephone central office sends the number to the MSC.MSC searches for the location of the MS by sending query signals to each cell in a process “paging”.If MS is found, MSC transmits a ring signal and assigns a voice channel to the call when MS answers.
11 RoamingA user can have access to communication or can be reached where there is a coverage.Neighboring service providers can provide extended coverage through a roaming contractSimilar to snail mail between countries
12 Generations of Cellular System First generation :was designed for voice communication using analog signalsAMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System): one of the leading analog cellular phone systems used in North AmericaUses FDMA (frequency division multiple access) to separate channels in a linkOperates in the ISM 800-MHZ bandUses two separate analog channels, one for forward and one for reverse communicationUses FM (frequency modulation) to modulate voice channel and FSK (frequency shift keying) modulation to modulate control channel
14 Generations of Cellular System Second generation:To provide high-quality (less noise-prone) voice transmissionwas designed for voice communication using digital signalsThree major digital cellular phone systems:D-AMPS (Digital AMPS):Backward compatible with AMPS(Use same bandwidth as AMPS 800MHz)Resue factor of 7.GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication):Uses two bands for duplex communication( forward , reverse)Each uses 25 MHz band124 channel with 200 KHz separated by guard bandReuse factor as low as 3 because of complex error correction
15 Generations of Cellular System Second generation:IS-95 (Interim Standard 95)Uses two bands for duplex communication (Each band is 800 MHz or 1900 MHz divided into 20 channel of MHz separated by guard band )Forward uses CDMA and it needs to synchronize the channel.Reverse uses DSSS without without synchronization.Reuse factor of 1 because the DSSS and CDMA will not allow interference.
16 Figure 16.5 Second-generation cellular phone systems
17 Generations of Cellular System Third generation : now being implementedProvides both digital voice and data communication (make a call, use the internet, download, video conference,…ITU (international telecommunication union) issued Internet Mobile Communication 2000 (IMT -2000) which defines some criteria for third generation:Higher-quality voice transmissionHigh bandwidth and data rateInterface the internet
18 Generations of Cellular System Forth generation :There are two candidate systems are commercially deployed :Mobile WiMax in 2006Long Term Evolution (LTE) in 20091800 to 2300 MHz band
20 Satellite NetworksIs a combination of nodes (satellites, Earth station, end-user terminal , or telephone) that provides communication from one point on the Earth to anotherdivides planet into cells (like cellular NW)Provides transmission to and from any location on Earth without requiring a huge investment in ground-base infrastructureExtensively used by TV networks.
22 What is the period of the Moon, according to Kepler’s law? Example 16.1What is the period of the Moon, according to Kepler’s law?Here C is a constant approximately equal to 1/100. The period is in seconds and the distance in kilometers.
23 Example 16.1 (continued)SolutionThe Moon is located approximately 384,000 km above the Earth. The radius of the Earth is 6378 km. Applying the formula, we get.
24 Applying the formula, we get Example 16.2According to Kepler’s law, what is the period of a satellite that is located at an orbit approximately 35,786 km above the Earth?SolutionApplying the formula, we get
25 Example 16.2 (continued)This means that a satellite located at 35,786 km has a period of 24 h, which is the same as the rotation period of the Earth. A satellite like this is said to be stationary to the Earth. The orbit, as we will see, is called a geosynchronous orbit.
33 Iridium systemThe Iridium system has 66 satellites in six LEO orbits, each at an altitude of 750 km.Iridium is designed to provide direct worldwide voice and data communication using handheld terminals, a service similar to cellular telephony but on a global scale.