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Physical and Cognitive Development In Middle and Late Childhood Chapter 9 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Cognitive Development In Middle and Late Childhood Chapter 9 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Cognitive Development In Middle and Late Childhood Chapter 9 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2 9 - 2 Chapter Outline Physical changes and health Children with disabilities Cognitive changes Language development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

3 9 - 3 Physical Changes and Health Body growth and change The brain Motor development Exercise Health, illness, and disease © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

4 9 - 4 Body Growth and Change Growth averages 2–3 inches per year Weight gain averages 5–7 pounds a year © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

5 9 - 5 The Brain Brain volume stabilizes Significant changes in structures and regions occur, especially in the prefrontal cortex Increases in cortical thickness Activation of some brain areas increase while others decrease © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

6 9 - 6 Motor Development Motor skills become smoother and more coordinated Boys outperform girls in gross motor skills involving large muscle activity Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood due to increased myelination of the central nervous system © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

7 9 - 7 Exercise Higher level of physical activity is linked to: – Lower level of metabolic disease risk based on measures : Cholesterol, waist circumference, and insulin levels Aerobic exercise benefits: – Children’s attention – Memory – Effortful and goal-directed thinking and behavior – Creativity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

8 9 - 8 Exercise Ways to get children to exercise – Offer physical activity programs school facilities – Improve physical fitness activities in schools – Have children plan community and school activities – Encourage families to focus more on physical activity © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

9 9 - 9 Health, Illness, and Disease Middle and late childhood is a time of excellent health Accidents and injuries – Motor vehicle accidents are most common cause of severe injury © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

10 Health, Illness, and Disease Overweight children – Causes of children being overweight Heredity and environmental contexts – Consequences of being overweight Diabetes, hypertension, and elevated blood cholesterol levels – Intervention programs © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

11 Health, Illness, and Disease Cardiovascular disease – Uncommon in children but risk factors are present Cancer – 2 nd leading cause of death in children 5–14 years old – Most common child cancer is leukemia – Children with cancer are surviving longer because of advancements in cancer treatment © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

12 Figure Types of Cancer in Children © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

13 Figure U.S. Children with a Disability Who Receive Special Education Services © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

14 Children with Disabilities The scope of disabilities Educational issues © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

15 The Scope of Disabilities Learning disability: Difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling – Dyslexia: Severe impairment in the ability to read and spell – Dysgraphia: Difficulty in handwriting – Dyscalculia: Developmental arithmetic disorder © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

16 The Scope of Disabilities The scope of disabilities – Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity Number of children diagnosed has increased substantially Possible causes – Genetics – Brain damage during prenatal or postnatal development – Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development – Low birth weight © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

17 Figure Regions of the Brain in Which Children with ADHD had a Delayed Peak in the Thickness of the Cerebral Cortex © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

18 The Scope of Disabilities Emotional and behavioral disorders: Serious, persistent problems that involve: – Relationships, aggression, depression, and fears associated with personal or school matters – Inappropriate socioemotional characteristics © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

19 The Scope of Disabilities Autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Range from autistic disorder to Asperger syndrome – Autistic disorder: Onset in the first three years of life Deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior – Asperger syndrome: Good verbal language skills Milder nonverbal language problems Restricted range of interests and relationships © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

20 Educational Issues Individualized Education Plan (IEP): Written statement that is specifically tailored for the disabled student Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which non-disabled children are educated Inclusion: Educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

21 Figure Percentage of U.S. Students with Disabilities 6 to 21 Years of Age Receiving Special Services in the General Classroom © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

22 Cognitive Changes Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory Information processing Intelligence Extremes of intelligence © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

23 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Concrete operational stage – Ages 7 to 11 – Children can perform concrete operations and reason logically, and are able to classify things into different sets – Seriation: Ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension – Transitivity: Ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

24 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Evaluating Piaget’s concrete operational stage – Concrete operational abilities do not appear in synchrony – Education and culture exert strong influences on children’s development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

25 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Neo-Piagetians: Argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision – Elaborated on Piaget’s theory, giving more emphasis to: Information processing, strategies, and precise cognitive steps © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

26 Figure Working Memory © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

27 Information Processing Long-term memory: Increases with age during middle and late childhood – Knowledge and expertise Experts have acquired extensive knowledge about a particular content area © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

28 Information Processing Strategies: Deliberate mental activities that improve the processing of information – Elaboration – Engage in mental imagery – Understanding the material – Repeat with variation – Embed memory-relevant language © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

29 Information Processing Fuzzy trace theory: Considering two types of memory representations: – Verbatim memory trace – Gist Thinking – Critical thinking: Reflectively and productively, and evaluating evidence Mindfulness: Being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

30 Information Processing Creative thinking: Ability to think in novel and unusual ways – Come up with unique solutions to problems – Convergent thinking: Produces one correct answer Kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

31 Information Processing – Divergent thinking: Produces many answers to the same question Creativity Scientific thinking – Asking fundamental and identifying causal relations questions about reality © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

32 Information Processing Metacognition: Cognition about cognition – Metamemory - Knowledge about memory Executive functioning – Self-control/inhibition – Working memory – Flexibility © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

33 Intelligence Ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn from experiences – Individual differences: Stable, consistent ways in which people differ from each other – Binet tests Mental age (MA): Individual’s level of mental development relative to others © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

34 Intelligence Intelligence quotient (IQ): Person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 Normal distribution: Symmetrical distribution – Most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores – Few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range – Wechsler Scales © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

35 Figure The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

36 Figure Sample Subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (wisc-iv) © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

37 Intelligence Types of intelligence – Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical intelligence Creative intelligence Practical intelligence © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

38 Intelligence – Gardner’s eight frames of mind: Verbal Mathematical Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist – Evaluating multiple-intelligence approaches © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

39 Intelligence Culture and intelligence Interpreting differences in IQ scores – Influences of genetics – Environmental influences – Group differences – Culture-fair tests: Designed to be free of cultural bias © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

40 Figure Correlation Between Intelligence Test Scores and Twin Status © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

41 Figure Sample Item from the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

42 Intelligence Using intelligence tests – Avoid stereotyping and expectations – Know that IQ is not the sole indicator of competence – Use caution in interpreting an overall IQ score © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

43 Extremes of Intelligence Mental retardation: Limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ and has difficulty adapting to everyday life – Organic retardation: Caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage – Cultural-familial retardation: No evidence of organic brain damage IQ is generally between 50 and 70 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

44 Extremes of Intelligence Gifted: Above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something – Three criteria Precocity Marching to their own drummer A passion to master – Nature-nurture – Domain-specific giftedness and development – Education of children who are gifted © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

45 Language Development Vocabulary, grammar, and metalinguistic awareness Reading Writing Bilingualism and second-language learning © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

46 Vocabulary, Grammar, and Metalinguistic Awareness Middle and late childhood – Changes occur in the way children’s mental vocabulary is organized Similar advances in grammar skills Metalinguistic awareness: Knowledge about language – Understanding what a preposition is – Being able to discuss the sounds of a language © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

47 Reading Whole-language approach: Reading instruction should parallel children’s natural language learning Phonics approach: Reading instruction should teach basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

48 Writing Parents and teachers should encourage children’s early writing – Not be concerned with the formation of letters or spelling © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

49 Bilingualism and Second-Language Learning Second-language learning – Bilingualism has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development Subtractive bilingualism Bilingual education – Research supports bilingual education © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.


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