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Hazardous Materials Section Four: Planning and Implementing a Response

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1 Hazardous Materials Section Four: Planning and Implementing a Response
Analyze Plan Implement Evaluate Objectives: Describe how to contact the proper authorities. Describe how to plan an initial response. Describe how to estimate the size and scope of the incident. Describe how to identify a resource for determining the size of an endangered area. Describe resources available for determining the concentrations of a released hazardous material. Initiate an Incident Command System (ICS) for hazardous materials incidents. Identify considerations for determining the location of the Incident Command Post (ICP). Introduction Identify resources that can assist you in the process of reporting the hazardous materials incident: First step after determining haz-mat presence Follow local SOP Who to contact: First call should be for additional resources Make legal notifications if required Fire fighters must follow their local standard operating procedures (SOP). A series of contacts and notifications may have to be made based on incident type, amount, and/or complexity. Section Four

2 On 14 August 2002, during routine chlorine transfer operations which had started at 6:30 AM, one of the 1-inch chlorine transfer hoses failed releasing chlorine. Furthermore, the automatic shutoff valves designed to shutoff the chlorine also failed to activate. According to employee interviews conducted later by the U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB), the three employees outside heard a loud pop at approximately 9:20 AM and observed a continuous release form chlorine at tank car station #3 (marked + on the photo). The three employees evacuated. The leak activated an area chlorine detection monitor audio alarm. The inside employees exited the building. The operations managers he exited tried to manually shutdown the packaging system by pressing an ESD button, but nothing happened. The system is designed to automatically shutdown based on chlorine detection levels, and although both manual and automatic shutdown systems were activated they failed to activate. Furthermore, although the facility had four self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units and employees were trained on its use, the men were unable to gather the equipment as they left the building because the equipment was too close to the spill site. The employees drove away from the area using U.S. Hwy 61 both north and south; there was no community-wide alert systems in place to warn of the chlorine spill. The chlorine leak was stopped three hours after the transfer line break when emergency responders in protective gear “waded” through the four-foot high plume cloud and manually shut off several valves at the top of the rail tank. By that time, an estimated 48,000 lbs of chlorine had escaped over three hours time. The shelter-in-place order lasted four hours. At 5 PM, Hwy 61 was opened. Section Four

3 Identification No action should take place until the identity of the hazardous material is confirmed Identification tools: Placard/Markings/Labels/704 Diamond Shipping papers DOT-ERG MSDS NIOSH Guidebook CHEMTREC Notification to other responders and agencies also needs to take place. The State Haz-Mat Team Response System will be covered later in this Section. Section Four

4 NIOSH Pocket Guide September 2005
Section Four

5 NIOSH Contents Roman numeral pages contain information keys
Multiple opportunities to indentify chemical Name, Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS) #, Synonym/trade name list Affords responders more detailed information to assist in planning Use after material identification and DOT-ERG application Section Four

6 Section Four

7 Identification When researching a chemical use readily available resource information sources DOT-ERG/NIOSH Pocket Guide/MSDS Consult at least three different sources if possible On-scene research should continue throughout the incident Protection and safety of fire fighters is the first priority, and It cannot be compromised for any reason. If two references indicate that the use of water is acceptable and one cautions against it, do not use water until further information is obtained. Use the most conservative data in planning the response. Section Four

8 Identification After identification, operations-level responder should ONLY perform DEFENSIVE actions that do not involve contact with the material If unable to identify: The most conservative response strategy and tactics must be employed Use DOT-ERG Guide 111 Maintain full protective equipment during any activity. Complete decontamination procedures prior to leaving any area where hazardous materials are present. Section Four

9 What to Report Report the information clearly, concisely, and accurately An error in spelling, an incorrect measurement, a mispronunciation of a chemical name, or incorrect identification of a hazardous material can be disastrous When agencies are contacted, it is important that the information given is as clear, concise, and accurate as possible. If a chemical is incorrectly identified, the proper response and safety procedures will not be carried out. This type of error can be deadly to both the responders and the public. The change or omission of just one letter in a chemical name could lead to incorrect identification. Section Four

10 What to Report Keep information as simple as possible
Spell names that are complex or potentially confusing Ethanal or ethanol? Have the receiver of the information repeat back what was heard Ethanal (CAS ): Boiling point: 21°C Melting point: -123°C Relative density (water = 1): 0.78 Solubility in water: miscible Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 99 Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.5 Flash point: -39°C (-38 ° F) Auto-ignition temperature: 185°C Explosive limits, vol% in air: 4-57 Ethanol (CAS# ): Boiling point: 79°C Melting point: -117°C Relative density (water = 1): 0.8 Solubility in water: miscible Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 5.8 Relative vapour density (air = 1): 1.6 Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.03 Flash point: 13°C c.c. (55.4 °F) Auto-ignition temperature: 363°C Explosive limits, vol% in air: Section Four

11 What to Report Information to report includes:
Exact address and location of spill or leak Identification of indicators and markers of hazardous materials All color and class information obtained from placards For these agencies to plan, prepare, and begin assisting the fire fighters, they must have as much information as can be obtained. This will help ensure that every possible situation can be taken into account and planned for, in order to prevent any further injury, property loss, or environmental damage. Section Four

12 What to Report Four-digit UN/NA numbers
Hazardous material identification obtained from shipping papers or MSDS and the potential quantity of hazardous material involved Description of container, including size, capacity, type, and shape Amount of chemical that could leak and amount that has leaked UN= United nations NA= North America Section Four

13 What to Report Exposures: Current weather: A contact:
Of people and the presence of special populations (children/elderly) Environment of the immediate area Current weather: Including wind direction and speed A contact: Or callback telephone number and two-way radio frequency or channel Section Four

14 Plan an Initial Response
The first priority is the safety of responding personnel Responders are there to isolate the problem, not to become part of it Proper incident planning will: Keep responders safe Provide a means to control the incident effectively, preventing further harm to persons or property Introduction to plan an initial response. When planning an initial hazardous materials incident response, the first priority is to consider the safety of the responding personnel. Responders are there to isolate, contain, and/or remedy the problem, not to become part of it. Proper incident planning will keep responders safe and provide a means to control the incident effectively, preventing further harm to persons or property. The old adage in haz mat response is: “We want to favorably affect the outcome of the situation.” Section Four

15 Plan an Initial Response
Planning response options begins with: Preplanning and SOG’s (your best tools) Followed by the initial call for help Information is used to determine the safest route to the scene Section Four

16 Plan an Initial Response
Choose a route that approaches the scene from an upwind direction whenever possible Choose a route that places the responders uphill of the site Natural wind currents will blow the hazardous material vapors away from responders. A liquid hazardous material will flow away from responders The route of approach may be dictated due to the lay of the land and access. If it’s not possible to approach from upwind/upgrade precautions need to be taken. These precautions may include stopping farther away from the scene. Section Four

17 Plan an Initial Response
Responders need to know the type of material involved Is the material a solid, liquid, or gas? Is it contained in a drum, barrel, or pressurized tanker? Section Four

18 Plan an Initial Response
Response to hazardous material spill Releases will differ from solid-liquid or gas Section Four

19 Plan an Initial Response
A solid is local and can be easily contained* A gas can be widespread and constantly moving depending on the gas characteristics and weather conditions * Unless it is a dust or small particles Section Four

20 Plan an Initial Response
Characteristics of the affected area near the location of the spill or leak are important factors in planning the incident response If an area is heavily populated: Evacuation procedures and a decontamination process need to be established very early in the incident We will discuss decontamination in a later Section. Section Four

21 Plan an Initial Response
If the area is sparsely populated and rural: Isolating the area from anyone trying to enter the location may be the top priority A high-traffic area such as a major highway would necessitate immediate rerouting of traffic Section Four

22 Plan an Initial Response
There may be more than one way to solve the problem A thorough risk based response analysis must be performed There are times when no action may be the safest course of action When responding to an incident, the more information that can be obtained the better. If information is unknown or is unconfirmed, then plan for the worst-case scenario. When planning for hazardous materials incidents, always plan for the largest margin of safety possible. Part of a risk based response is the adage about risk vs. gain: Risk a lot to save a lot; Risk little to save little; Risk nothing to save nothing. Section Four

23 Plan an Initial Response
Understand product control options Identify physical and chemical properties of the released substance Decontamination should be performed when and where appropriate There are several items worthy of note in this picture: It appears these folks are downhill. Only one firefighter is wearing an SCBA. It appears they are standing in the foamed product. Section Four

24 Planning a Response Incidents may be categorized by SOG: Level One:
Small product release/no life-environmental hazard Level Two: Special resources needed/local area/moderate environmental impact potential Level Three: Uncontrolled release/large area evacuation/severe environmental impact possible There is a handout fully explaining each level in the back of the student guide. Section Four

25 Massachusetts Chemical/Radiological/Biological Incident Response Activation Levels
Situation Hazard & Risk Assessment or Suspicious Substance Investigation Short Term Entry Operation Long Term and/or Immediate Life Safety Risk Major Release or Extended Operation WMD or Mass Casualty Event Tier Response 1- TOMs Unit (ORU Optional) (5 Techs) 2- TOMs Unit & ORU (1/2 Team) 3- TOMs Unit & ORU(s) (Full Team) 4- Multi-Team 5- Full Hazmat System, plus Bomb Squad and CST activated TOM= Technical Operational Module (Being replaced by Squad Vehicles) ORU= Operational Response Units TSU= Technical Support Unit (New, In Service March 2009) This is the Massachusetts Response Classification/Activation System. The Haz-Mat Teams are requested by the IC, through your local dispatch office to the regional dispatch office. The System is undergoing a re-engineering process; by the summer of 2009 there may be two dispatch centers for the entire state. Section Four

26 Statewide Mass Decontamination Response System
Massachusetts Chemical/Radiological/Biological Incident Response Activation Levels Statewide Mass Decontamination Response System Level Response Situation State HM Response Mass Decon I/C requests specific Limited/controlled event Tier MDUs (deployment not pre-planned) Mass Decon 1-2 District MDU’s Moderate; single facility Tier to scene& MDUs to limited occupancy local hospitals (office building) A MDU= Mass Decontamination Units 1 located at each hospital with an emergency room; 17 located in fire districts throughout Massachusetts. B Section Four

27 Statewide Mass Decontamination Response System
Massachusetts Chemical/Radiological/Biological Incident Response Activation Levels Statewide Mass Decontamination Response System Level Response Situation State HM Response Mass Decon MDUs to scene Major: Shopping Mall, Tier 5 & hospitals in effected Public Arena or & surrounding fire multiple buildings districts covered by MDUs Mass Decon Up to 17 District MDUs Extreme: Wide geographic Tier to scene. Most hospitals area or major event in the state covered by MDUs C D Section Four

28 Response Objectives Operations-level responders develop defensive, non-product contact objectives Some effective defense actions can be taken safely at a distance Defensive objectives and actions follow on the next two slides. Section Four

29 Defensive Objectives Isolate the area affected by the leak or spill
Evacuate victims who could become exposed Control where the spill or release is spreading Confine the spill to a specific area Defensive objectives are ones that do not involve stopping the leak or release of a hazardous material. Section Four

30 Defensive Actions Diking and damming Absorbing or adsorbing material
Stopping the flow remotely from a valve or shutoff Diluting or diverting material Suppressing or dispersing vapor Section Four

31 Proper Personal Protective Equipment
PPE is needed based on the hazardous material involved Physical/chemical properties At a minimum, fire fighters should wear full protective gear with no skin exposed and use SCBA Standard structural firefighting PPE offers limited hazardous material protection This ensemble provides some respiratory protection, but standard structural firefighting PPE offers limited hazardous material protection depending on the type of hazardous material involved. Section Four

32 Identify Emergency Decontamination Procedures
There must be a procedure or a plan in place to decontaminate any responder who accidentally becomes contaminated Victims removed from a contaminated zone must be decontaminated Personnel who perform decon need to be trained in proper decon methods Rapid Access Mass Decontamination (RAM Decon) Section Four

33 Gauging the Potential Harm or Severity of the Incident
Based on the toxicity and the concentration of the hazardous material, responder may be able to gauge how the incident might progress You may want to mention how vapor pressure, temperature, potential for release, container integrity, etc. all are factors in the risk based response to a haz mat incident. Section Four

34 Resources for Determining the Size of the Incident
DOT-ERG Identifies and outlines predetermined evacuation distances and basic action plans, based on spill estimates, for thousands of chemicals Computerized or hard-copy pre-incident plan Includes reports submitted to the fire department and topographical mapping information Use two resources to determine incident size. Section Four

35 Reporting the Size and Scope of the Incident
Reporting the estimated incident size is done by using information available at the scene If a container (vehicle) is transporting a known amount of material, the size of the release may be estimated Units can be as small as square feet or as large as square miles When it is initially unsafe to approach a vehicle and shipping papers are not immediately available, other methods must be used to determine the original amount of hazardous material and the remaining contained amount. Section Four

36 Determine the Concentration of a Released Hazardous Material
How may an OLR determine a material’s concentration? Litmus paper use is not an OLR action Monitoring instruments are used to analyze the atmosphere from a safe distance The OLR may determine the concentration of a known material utilizing: MSDS Shipping Papers NIOSH On-scene allied professionals Litmus paper can be used to determine the concentration of an acid or a base by reporting the hazardous material’s pH; however use of this paper involves the potential for more product contact than operationally trained people should have. Section Four

37 Determine the Concentration of a Released Hazardous Material
Once the concentration is known, the IC can evaluate the incident response plan A high concentration of an acid would call for a high level of PPE May also require the evacuation of civilians To determine the concentration of a gaseous hazardous material, monitors are used to analyze the atmosphere from a safe distance. Once the concentration of the hazardous material is known, the IC can evaluate the incident response plan. A high concentration of an acid would call for a higher level of personal protection. It may also require the evacuation of civilians due to the concentration of the hazardous material in vaporized form. Section Four

38 Incident Command System
Consists of five functions: Command/Operations/Planning/Logistics/Finance ICS can be expanded to handle an incident of any size and complexity Hazardous materials incidents can be complex Local, state, and federal responders and agencies will be involved in many cases of long duration Section Four

39 Incident Command System
It is Federal Law that an ICS must be used at all hazardous materials incidents A written incident action and site safety plan must be developed for the incident A special technical group, under the Operations Section, called a Hazardous Material Branch, may be developed for the incident Section Four

40 Incident Command System
Operations Section Haz-Mat Branch HM Safety Officer Science Unit Decon Group A second safety officer Reports directly to the hazardous materials team officer Responsible for the hazardous materials team’s safety only A hot zone entry team A decontamination team A backup entry team (rapid intervention team) A hazardous materials information research team Entry Group Entry Unit B/U( RIT) Unit Section Four

41 The Command Post The main hub of the ICS
ICP is the collection point for all information and resources Must be located in the cold zone upwind and upgrade from the spill or leak to keep it from becoming contaminated Section Four

42 The Command Post If the ICP and personnel became contaminated, the personnel would no longer be able to control the operation The command post could be as close as one block away or as far as miles away from the hot zone They would become victims, the ICP would be part of the hot zone, and all operations would have to be re-established elsewhere, using a completely different pool of personnel, equipment, and supplies. The overall efficiency of command would be negatively affected. Scene control would be temporarily lost during transfer of command. When choosing a site for the ICP, the maximum margin of safety must be used. In the Apex, NC incident the command post was relocated five times and ended up miles away from the release site. Section Four

43 Summary An important early notification to make is the request for additional response personnel, hazardous materials response teams staffed by trained technicians, and technical specialists The approach to the incident should be from upwind, and from a direction that ensures that released liquids and/or vapors flow away from responders Possible defensive actions include stopping the release with a valve or shutoff; absorbing, adsorbing, diking, damming, diverting, or diluting escaped material; and suppressing or dispersing vapor Section Four

44 Summary The type of personal protective equipment required depends on the material involved and the nature of the incident The Incident Command System must be used at a haz-mat incident In a hazardous materials incident, a Hazardous Materials Branch develops under the Operations Section in the Incident Command System This branch includes a second safety officer and a number of specialized operational teams. Section Four

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