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Ecosystems and Biomes G.2.1-G.2.5. Primary Production in Ecosystems  Energy hits the earth in the form of solar radiation.  A small percentage of this.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems and Biomes G.2.1-G.2.5. Primary Production in Ecosystems  Energy hits the earth in the form of solar radiation.  A small percentage of this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems and Biomes G.2.1-G.2.5

2 Primary Production in Ecosystems  Energy hits the earth in the form of solar radiation.  A small percentage of this light is absorbed by plant pigments and used for photosynthesis.  Photosynthesis is the conversion from solar energy (light)  chemical energy (sugars)

3 Biomass  The total dry mass of organic matter in organisms or ecosystems in a certain place at a certain time.  Primary production is the amount of new biomass added in a given period of time.

4 Factors that control primary production  Light (intensity and duration)  Nutrients/soil quality  Temperature  Rainfall/moisture  Density of plant populations  Crucial nutrients are used in productivity, so need to be replaced for ecosystem to continue = Limiting Nutrient

5 Gross & Net Primary Production  Gross Primary Production (GPP): The total of organic material produced by plants (including that lost to respiration).  Net Primary Production (NPP): The amount of biomass that is available to consumers at subsequent trophic levels.  NPP = GPP – R (R = energy used by 1° producers for respiration)

6 Energy Pyramids  The lowest bar on an energy pyramid illustrates the amount of energy flowing through the producers in an ecosystem. This is called gross production.  G.P. does not need to be measured directly as it can be measured from net production and plant respiration.

7 Energy Pyramids  The energy content per gram of food does not diminish as you move up the food chain.  Instead, the food seems to get richer in energy per gram.  The total amount of energy available is lower at the higher trophic levels, and therefore can support less organisms.

8 Difficulties in Classifying organisms into trophic levels  Classifying organisms into trophic levels in a community can be difficult because many organisms can fill several different trophic levels in a food web –Euglena (uses chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but also takes in food via endocytosis) –Chimpanzees eat fruit and other plant matter, but also eat termites and some other monkeys


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