Presentation on theme: "Ecology Concepts F Ecosystems. Relationships, I F Trophic structure / levels ~ feeding relationships in an ecosystem F Primary producers ~ the trophic."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology Concepts F Ecosystems
Relationships, I F Trophic structure / levels ~ feeding relationships in an ecosystem F Primary producers ~ the trophic level that supports all others; autotrophs F Primary consumers ~ herbivores F Secondary and tertiary consumers ~ carnivores F Detrivores/detritus ~ special consumers that derive nutrition from non-living organic matter F Food chain ~ trophic level food pathway
Relationships, II F Food webs ~ interconnected feeding relationship in an ecosystem
Energy Flow, I F Primary productivity (amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs) Gross (GPP): total energy Net (NPP): represents the storage of energy available to consumers Rs: respiration F NPP = GPP - Rs F Biomass: primary productivity reflected as dry weight of organic material F Secondary productivity: the rate at which an ecosystem's consumers convert chemical energy of the food they eat into their own new biomass
Energy Flow, II F Ecological efficiency : % of E transferred from one trophic level to the next (5-20%) F Pyramid of productivity : multiplicative loss of energy in trophic levels F Biomass pyramid : trophic representation of biomass in ecosystems F Pyramid of numbers : trophic representation of the number of organisms in an ecosystem
Chemical Cycling F Biogeochemical cycles: the various nutrient circuits, which involve both abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem F Water F Carbon F Nitrogen F Phosphorus
Human Impact F Biological magnification : trophic process in which retained substances become more concentrated at higher levels F Greenhouse effect : warming of planet due to atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide F Ozone depletion : effect of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released into the atmosphere F Rainforest destruction F Cause: Overpopulation/Overuse ?