6Soil- Agricultural land Water- 66.7%Non Ag 24.4%Grazing-5.7%Water- 66.7%Non Ag 24.4%Ag – 8.6%Crops- 2.9%
7Soil- Land Use in IOWA Crop- 74.3% Pasture- 12.7% Grazing-5.7% All Land- 93.7%Land in US- 6.2%Forest 4.9%Minor 2.7%Transportation 3%Iowa- .1%
8Soil-less Media Media Mixes Perlite Vermiculite Peat moss Sphaghnum mossSandCompostWood chips, barksWater- Hydroponics
9Soil Formation Climate Living Organisms Parent Material Topography TimeWeathering
10Climate Temperature Chemical reaction rates Growth of fungi, bacteria, plantsRainfallIncreases erosion rateIncreases leaching
11Living OrganismsDecomposers- fungi and bacteria- aid in organic matter breakdown.Plants- add organic material to soilEarth worms- help create soil structure and breakdown plant residue.
12Parent Material Residual Transported Mineral Organic Glacial till-ice IgneousSedimentaryMetamorphicOrganicPeatTransportedGlacial till-iceAlluvial- waterLoess- wind blownColluvium- gravity added by waterLacustrine- lake deposits
27Land is more than soilNatural and artificial characteristics of an area to be used for agricultural or other purposesIncludes renewable and nonrenewable resources plus improvements
28Land The surface of the earth not covered with water Maybe temporarily or permenently covered with waterA pond for aquaculture is considered land
29Cropland Used for growing crops Crops grown typically improve the tilth of the land
30Arable land Land that can be used for row crops Can be tilled Alternatives include pasture and forest crops
31Major Characteristics of Cropland Soil - Large impact on productivity. Soil texture, nutrients and internal structureClimate - average of water conditions over a long timeTopography - form or outline of the surface of the earthWater supply - amount of water available for crops
33Alternative UsesBest land use is determined by how the land will give the most benefits to people.Which use will give the highest returnsWhat will happen if productive cropland is used for other purposes?
34Land Improvement Four common practices to improve arable land IrrigationErosion ControlDrainageForming (land forming)- surface is smoothed or reshaped.
35Capability Factors Characteristics of land that determine its best use Surface textureproportion of sand, silt, clay down to about 7 inchesthree major classificationssandyloamyclayey
36Soil TilthPhysical condition of the soil that makes it easy or difficult to workPoor tilth has hard clodMaybe very wet or very dry
37Internal drainage Permeability- movement of water and air through soil Directly related to nutrient contentClassified as very slow, slow, moderate and rapidwater quickly soaks into sandy soil with high permeabilitysoils with clay have slow permeability
38Soil Depth Thickness of the soil layers Requirement depends upon type of crop to be producedFour soil depths are usedvery shallow - less than 10 inchesshallow - 10 to 20 inchesmoderately deep - 20 to 36 inchesdeep - over 36 inchesShallow soils are often the result of erosion
39Erosion Loss of topsoil by wind or other forces Four categories very severe erosion- 75% or more and large gullies are presentsevere erosion - 75% of soil has eroded but no large gullies presentmoderate erosion- 25 to 75% of soil has eroded with small gullies presentnone to slight erosion - less than 25% of soil has eroded and no gullies are present
40Slope The rise and fall of the elevation of the land Measured in percentsImportant in determining the best use of the land
41Surface RunoffWater from rain, snow, or other precipitation that does not soak into the groundCan be reduced by conservation practiceschopping stalksterracesground cover
42Land Capability Suitability of land for agricultural uses. Usage should not cause damage to the land although nutients maybe removed
43Land Capability Classes Assigning a number to landEight classes usedI to VIII with I being the best arabilityClass I to IV can be cultivatedV to VIII tend to have high slope or low and wet
44Classes Class I - Very good land Class II - Good land Very few limitationsdeep soil and nearly levelcan be cropped every year as long as land is taken care ofClass II - Good landhas deep soilmay require moderate attention to conservation practices
45Class III - moderately good land crops must be more carefully selectedoften gently sloping hillsterraces and stripcropping are more often usedClass IV - fairly good landlowest class cultivatedon hills with more slope than class IIIClass V - Unsuited for cultivationcan be used for pasture crops and cattle grazing, hay crops or tree farmingoften used for wildlife or recreation areas
46Class VI - Not suited for row crops too much slopeusually damaged by erosion with gulliescan be used for trees, wildlife habitat, and recreationClass VII - Highly unsuited for cultivationhas severe limitationspermanent pastures, forestry, wildlifeslope is usually over 12 percentlarge rock surfaces and boulders may be foundvery little soil present
47Class VIII Cannot be used for row crops or other crops often lowland covered with watersoil maybe wet or high in clayaquatic crops maybe grown thereused for waterfowl habitat
48Physical, Biological, and Chemical characterisitics Unit 9
49What is a Soil Profile?- a view of a cross section of soil 0 Horizon-located on surface, mostly O.M.A Horizon-Called Topsoil, good amounts of O.M. and minerals.B Horizon- Known as Subsoil, Less O.M.C Horizon- Mostly parent material, does little for plant growth.R- bedtrock
50Soil Profile- Differences in layers based on: Organic matter Texture ColorStructure
51Soil ColorDetermined by 2 main thingsOrganic matterMineral content
52It is the relative sizes of the different soil What is soil textureIt is the relative sizes of the different soilparticles.
53The major Soil Texture Classes Sand-largest particleSilt-medium size particleClay-smallest particle
61Terms and definitionsEssential Nutrient- Element necessary for plant growth and reproduction, for example: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.Deficiency- Plant condition where an essential nutrient is not sufficiently available.Symptom- A visual sign or condition that results from a deficiency: symptoms aids in diagnosing a deficiency.
62Chemical Elements Essential To Plant Growth Non-mineral- air and waterCarbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Oxygen (O)Nitrogen (N)Mineral- from the soilPrimaryNitrogen (N)Phosphorus (P)Potassium (K)SecondaryCalcium (Ca)Magnesium (Mg)Sulfur (S)MicronutrientsIron (Fe), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Clorine (Cl)
6310 Essential Elements Essential Elements Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O)Phosphorus (P)Potash (K)Nitrogen (N)Sulfur (S)Calcium (Ca)Iron (Fe)Magnesium (Mg)C. HOPKINS CAFÉ Mighty Good
64Functions of Nutrients for plant growth Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen are needed in the plant processes of photosynthesis of photosynthesis and respiration.Approximately 95% of weight of plants comes from products of photosynthesis
65Primary Nutrient Functions Nitrogen (N)Gives green color to plantInduces vigorous , rapid growth in plantsIncreases protein and yieldAids and promotes seed and fruit developmentNitrogen constitutes 80% of the atmosphere, yet it is one of the most critical elements for plant growth.Plants cannot utilize N as a gas, it must be combined with other elements.
66Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Nitrogen (N)Stunted and SpindlyYellow, yellowish green or light green in color in foliage (chlorosis)Older leaves affected first, starting at the tip and moves along the middle of the leaf.
67More Primary Nutrient Functions Phosphorus (P)Important to germinating seedlingsContributes to early maturing cropsNecessary for seed and fruit formationStimulates root growth
68Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Phosphorus (P)Stunted GrowthVery dark green colorPurple leaves or portions of leaves in advanced stagesOlder leaves affected first
69Primary Nutrient Functions Cont. Potassium (K)Necessary for production and translocation of carbohydratesProduces plumper seedsControls Water intake and respirationStiffens straw and stalks
70Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Potassium (K)Shorter plantsBronzing or browning of leaf colorLodging (bending of the stem) occursLeaves show yellow to brown coloring along leaf margins followed by complete browning.
71Deficiency ContinuedOther conditions besides deficiencies may cause abnormal plant growth.Cold, wet weather, lack of sunlight, disease, insect damage, and improperly applied chemicals are examples.
72More Terms and Definitions Fertilizer- Natural, manufactured, or processed material or mixture of materials that contains one or more of the essential nutrients; availible in:dry formliquid formgaseous form
73Fertilizer TermsAnalysis- Percentage water soluble content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) expressed as P2O5, and potassium (K) expressed as K2O in the fertilizer.Brand- Trademark of the company which produced the fertilizer.Complete Fertilizer- Fertilizer which supplies all three primary nutrients, (N,P,K)
74Factors that Influence Fertilizer Use Chemical and physical condition of the soilCrop to be grownClimatic ConditionsTime
75Growing plants without a soil media. Hydroponics