9 Functions of Phosphorus Stimulates early formation and growth of rootsProvides for fast and vigorous growth and speeds maturityStimulates flowering and seed developmentNecessary for the enzyme action of many plant processes
10 Phosphorus P Deficiency symptoms decrease in growth slow maturity older leaves are purplish colorP
25 Micro Nutrients Also called “trace” elements Needed by plants in small amounts
26 Iron (Fe) Functions of Iron Deficiency symptoms Essential for chlorophyll productionHelps carry electrons to mix oxygen with other elementsDeficiency symptomsmottled and interveinal chlorosis in young leavesstunted growth and slender, short stems
32 Boron (B) Functions Deficiency Symptoms affects water absorption by rootstranslocation of sugarsDeficiency Symptomsshort, thick stem tipsyoung leaves of terminal buds are light green at baseleaves become twisted and die
41 Objective 6.02Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various fertilizers.
42 Types of Fertilizers Complete Incomplete Organic Inorganic Soluble Insoluble
43 Complete vs. Incomplete Complete has all three primary nutrients-nitrogen phosphorous & potassiumExamples: , ,Incomplete DOES NOT have all three primary nutrientsExamples: , ,
44 Organic FertilizersComes from plant or animal matter and contains carbon compoundsExamples: urea, sludge and animal tankage
45 Advantages of Organic Slow release of nutrients Not easily leached from the soilAdd organic components to growing media
46 Disadvantages of Organic Hard to getNot sterileLow nutrient contentExpensive
47 Inorganic Fertilizers Comes from sources other than animals or plantsChemical products
48 Advantages of Inorganic Can make the desired ratio of nutrientseasy to getlower cost
49 Disadvantages of Inorganic No organic materialpossible chemical building up in growing media
50 Soluble FertilizerDissolve in water and are applied as a liquid solutionFertigationfertilizing through irrigation waterbig advantage
51 Insoluble FertilizerIncludes granular and slow release applied to the growing media
52 Granular vs. Slow Release relatively inexpensiveeasy to findSlow Releasemore expensive because it is coatedmore uniform release of nutrients over time period
53 20-10-20 Fertilizer Analysis N P K Fertilizer analysis expresses weight as a percent of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassiumNPK
54 Fertilizer Analysis For Example A 100 pound bag of fertilizer has an analysis of How many pounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are in the bag?Nitrogen: 100lbs X 15%=15lbsPhosphorus: 100lbs X 5%=5lbsPotassium: 100lbs X 15%=15lbs
55 Fertilizer RatiosA fertilizer with a analysis would have a 1:1:1 ratioA fertilizer with a analysis would have a 3:1:2 ratioWhat would be the ratio for a fertilizer with an analysis of ?4:2:3
57 BandingPlacing a band of fertilizer about two inches to the sides and about two inches below seed depth.DO NOT place below the seeds because fertilizer will burn the roots.
58 SidedressingPlacing a band of fertilizer near the soil surface and to the sides after seedlings emerge from the soil.
59 TopdressingMixing fertilizer uniformly into the top one to two inches of growing media around the plant.
60 PerforatingPlacing fertilizer in 12”-18” holes drilled 18” to 24” around the canopy drip line of fruit trees. Cover the holes and fertilizer slowly dissolves.
61 BroadcastingSpreading fertilizer to cover the entire production area
62 Foliar SprayingSpraying micronutrients in a solution directly on plant leaves.Quickly corrects nutrient deficienciesFertilizer concentration should not be too high or leaf burning will occur.
63 FertigationIncorporating water-soluble fertilizer into the irrigation system of greenhouse and nursery crops.Concentrated solutions usually pass through proportioners or injectors to dilute to the correct ratio.Venturi-typePositive-displacement
64 Venturi-type Simple and inexpensive less accurate depends on water pressure in the hose and in the smaller tube to proportionExample: Hozon
65 Positive-displacement More expensivevery accuratephysically inject and mix specific amounts of concentrated solution and waterExamples: commander proportioners, and Smith injectors
66 Rules for applying fertilizers Method used should be practical, effective and cost efficientMethod used affects nutrient availability for plant useFertilizer must be dissolved and reach plant roots