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Environmental Requirements for Plant Growth. Unit 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Requirements for Plant Growth. Unit 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Requirements for Plant Growth. Unit 4

2 Environment Water Water Nutrition Nutrition Temperature Temperature Light Light

3 Underground Environment Rhizosphere Rhizosphere

4 What is a Soil Profile? 0 Horizon-located on surface, mostly O.M. 0 Horizon-located on surface, mostly O.M. A Horizon-Called Topsoil, good amounts of O.M. and minerals. A Horizon-Called Topsoil, good amounts of O.M. and minerals. B Horizon- Known as Subsoil, Less O.M. B Horizon- Known as Subsoil, Less O.M. C Horizon- Mostly parent material, does little for plant growth. C Horizon- Mostly parent material, does little for plant growth. Bedrock Bedrock

5 Soil Water Soil Water Gravitational water Gravitational water Capillary Water Capillary Water –Free moving water –Available water –Unavailable water GW FMWAW UW

6 What is soil texture It is the relative sizes of the different soil It is the relative sizes of the different soil particles. particles.

7 The major Soil Texture Classes Sand-largest particle Sand-largest particle Silt-medium size particle Silt-medium size particle Clay-smallest particle Clay-smallest particle

8 Characteristics of aSandy Soil

9 Characteristics of a Silty Soil

10 Characteristics of a Clay Soil

11 Using the Soil Texture Triangle

12 What is Soil Structure? Sand, silt and clay particles combine with one anther to form cluster called aggregates. Sand, silt and clay particles combine with one anther to form cluster called aggregates. The way in which aggregates or clusters are arranged is referred to as soil structure. The way in which aggregates or clusters are arranged is referred to as soil structure.

13 Soil Structure Categories

14 Soil Improvements Drainage and aeration Drainage and aeration Moisture retention Moisture retention Soil Pests Soil Pests

15 Soil-less media Perlite Perlite Sphagnum moss Sphagnum moss Peat moss Peat moss Vermiculite Vermiculite Limestone Limestone Tree bark Tree bark Fertilizers Fertilizers

16 Soil Fertility Soil pH Soil pH Essential Nutrients Essential Nutrients

17 Soil pH

18 Terms and definitions Essential Nutrient- Element necessary for plant growth and reproduction, for example: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Essential Nutrient- Element necessary for plant growth and reproduction, for example: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Deficiency- Plant condition where an essential nutrient is not sufficiently available. Deficiency- Plant condition where an essential nutrient is not sufficiently available. Symptom- A visual sign or condition that results from a deficiency: symptoms aids in diagnosing a deficiency. Symptom- A visual sign or condition that results from a deficiency: symptoms aids in diagnosing a deficiency.

19 Chemical Elements Essential To Plant Growth Non-mineral- air and water Non-mineral- air and water –Carbon (C) –Hydrogen (H) –Oxygen (O) –Nitrogen (N) Mineral- from the soil Mineral- from the soil –Primary  Nitrogen (N)  Phosphorus (P)  Potassium (K) –Secondary  Calcium (Ca)  Magnesium (Mg)  Sulfur (S) –Micronutrients  Iron (Fe), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Clorine (Cl)

20 10 Essential Elements Essential Essential Elements –Carbon –Carbon (C) –Hydrogen –Hydrogen (H) –Oxygen –Oxygen (O) –Phosphorus –Phosphorus (P) –Potash –Potash (K) –Nitrogen –Nitrogen (N) –Sulfur –Sulfur (S) –Calcium –Calcium (Ca) –Iron –Iron (Fe) –Magnesium –Magnesium (Mg) C. HOPKINS CAFÉ Mighty Good

21 Functions of Nutrients for plant growth Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen are needed in the plant processes of photosynthesis of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen are needed in the plant processes of photosynthesis of photosynthesis and respiration. Approximately 95% of weight of plants comes from products of photosynthesis Approximately 95% of weight of plants comes from products of photosynthesis

22 Primary Nutrient Functions Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen (N) –Gives green color to plant –Induces vigorous, rapid growth in plants –Increases protein and yield –Aids and promotes seed and fruit development –Nitrogen constitutes 80% of the atmosphere, yet it is one of the most critical elements for plant growth. –Plants cannot utilize N as a gas, it must be combined with other elements.

23 Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen (N) –Stunted and Spindly –Yellow, yellowish green or light green in color in foliage (chlorosis) –Older leaves affected first, starting at the tip and moves along the middle of the leaf.

24 More Primary Nutrient Functions Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus (P) –Important to germinating seedlings –Contributes to early maturing crops –Necessary for seed and fruit formation –Stimulates root growth

25 Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus (P) –Stunted Growth –Very dark green color –Purple leaves or portions of leaves in advanced stages –Older leaves affected first

26 Primary Nutrient Functions Cont. Potassium (K) Potassium (K) –Necessary for production and translocation of carbohydrates –Produces plumper seeds –Controls Water intake and respiration –Stiffens straw and stalks

27 Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms Potassium (K) Potassium (K) –Shorter plants –Bronzing or browning of leaf color –Lodging (bending of the stem) occurs –Leaves show yellow to brown coloring along leaf margins followed by complete browning.

28 Deficiency Continued Other conditions besides deficiencies may cause abnormal plant growth. Other conditions besides deficiencies may cause abnormal plant growth. –Cold, wet weather, lack of sunlight, disease, insect damage, and improperly applied chemicals are examples.

29 More Terms and Definitions Fertilizer- Natural, manufactured, or processed material or mixture of materials that contains one or more of the essential nutrients; availible in: Fertilizer- Natural, manufactured, or processed material or mixture of materials that contains one or more of the essential nutrients; availible in: –dry form –liquid form –gaseous form

30 Fertilizer Terms Analysis- Percentage water soluble content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) expressed as P 2 O 5, and potassium (K) expressed as K 2 O in the fertilizer. Analysis- Percentage water soluble content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) expressed as P 2 O 5, and potassium (K) expressed as K 2 O in the fertilizer. Brand- Trademark of the company which produced the fertilizer. Brand- Trademark of the company which produced the fertilizer. Complete Fertilizer- Fertilizer which supplies all three primary nutrients, (N,P,K) Complete Fertilizer- Fertilizer which supplies all three primary nutrients, (N,P,K)

31 Factors that Influence Fertilizer Use Chemical and physical condition of the soil Chemical and physical condition of the soil Crop to be grown Crop to be grown Climatic Conditions Climatic Conditions Time Time

32 Above ground environment Temperature Temperature Light Light Air Quality Air Quality

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34 map.html map.html map.html map.html

35 Light reactions Sun exposure Sun exposure –Full sun –Partial sun –Shade tolerant Photoperiodism Photoperiodism –Short day –Long day –indifferent Photo tropism Photo tropism


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