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Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers

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Presentation on theme: "Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers
24.00: Explain the role of nutrients in quality plant growth

2 Macro vs Micro Nutrients
Macro nutrients are required by the plant in relatively large amounts Micro nutrients are required only in small amounts minor or trace elements

3 Macro nutrients Non-mineral elements Primary Nutrients
carbon (C) hydrogen (H) oxygen (O) Primary Nutrients Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Secondary Nutrients calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) sulfur (S)

4 Micro nutrients Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Zinc (Zn) Boron (B)
Molybdenum (Mo) Manganese (Mn) Chlorine (Cl)

5 Functions of Nitrogen N Promotes growth of leaves and stems
Gives dark green color and improves quality of foliage Necessary to develop cell proteins and chlorophyll N

6 Nitrogen Deficiency symptoms sick, yellow-green color
short stems, small leaves, pale colored leaves and flowers slow and dwarfed plant growth

7 Nitrogen deficiency

8 Functions of Phosphorus
Stimulates early formation and growth of roots Provides for fast and vigorous growth and speeds maturity Stimulates flowering and seed development Necessary for the enzyme action of many plant processes

9 Phosphorus P Deficiency symptoms decrease in growth slow maturity
older leaves are purplish color P

10 Phosphorus Deficiency

11 Functions of Potassium
Used to form carbohydrates and proteins Formation and transfer of starches, sugars and oils Increases disease resistance, vigor and hardiness K

12 Potassium Deficiency symptoms
mottled, spotted, streaked or curled leaves scorched, burned, dead leaf tips and margins

13 Potassium Deficiency

14 Functions of Calcium Ca Improves plant vigor
Influences intake and synthesis of other plant nutrients Important part of cell walls Ca

15 Calcium Deficiency symptoms small developing leaves
wrinkled older leaves dead stem tips

16 Calcium Deficiency

17 Functions of Magnesium
Influences the intake of other essential nutrients Helps make fats Assists in translocation of phosphorus and fats Mg

18 Magnesium Deficiency symptoms
Interveinal chlorosis-yellowing of leaves between green veins leaf tips curl or cup upward slender, weak stalks

19 Magnesium Deficiency

20 Functions of Sulfur Promotes root growth and vigorous vegetative growth Essential to protein formation S

21 Sulfur Deficiency symptoms
young leaves are light green with lighter color veins yellow leaves and stunted growth

22 Sulfur Deficiency

23 Iron Functions of Iron Deficiency symptoms
Essential for chlorophyll production Helps carry electrons to mix oxygen with other elements Deficiency symptoms mottled and interveinal chlorosis in young leaves stunted growth and slender, short stems

24 Iron Deficiency Fe

25 Copper Functions Deficiency symptoms Helps in the use of Iron
Helps respiration Deficiency symptoms young leaves are small and permanently wilt multiple buds at stem tip

26 Copper Deficiency Cu

27 Zinc Functions Deficiency symptoms plant metabolism
helps form growth hormones reproduction Deficiency symptoms retarded growth between nodes (rosetted) new leaves are thick and small spotted between veins, discolored veins

28 Zinc Deficiency Zn

29 Boron Functions Deficiency Symptoms affects water absorption by roots
translocation of sugars Deficiency Symptoms short, thick stem tips young leaves of terminal buds are light green at base leaves become twisted and die

30 Boron Deficiency B

31 Manganese Functions Deficiency symptoms plant metabolism
nitrogen transformation Deficiency symptoms interveinal chlorosis young leaves die

32 Manganese Deficiency Mn

33 Molybdenum Functions Deficiency symptoms plant development
reproduction Deficiency symptoms stunted growth yellow leaves, upward curling leaves, leaf margins burn

34 Molybdenum Deficiency

35 Chlorine Functions Deficiency symptoms
essential to some plant processes acts in enzyme systems Deficiency symptoms usually more problems with too much chlorine or toxicity than with deficiency

36 Chlorine Deficiency Cl

37 Fertilizers

38 Types of Fertilizers Complete Incomplete Organic Inorganic Soluble

39 Complete vs. Incomplete
Complete has all three primary nutrients-nitrogen phosphorous & potassium Examples: , , Incomplete DOES NOT have all three primary nutrients Examples: , ,

40 Organic Fertilizers Comes from plant or animal matter and contains carbon compounds Examples: urea, sludge and animal tankage

41 Advantages of Organic Slow release of nutrients
Not easily leached from the soil Add organic components to growing media

42 Disadvantages of Organic
Hard to get Not sterile Low nutrient content Expensive

43 Inorganic Fertilizers
Comes from sources other than animals or plants Chemical products

44 Advantages of Inorganic
Can make the desired ratio of nutrients easy to get lower cost

45 Disadvantages of Inorganic
No organic material possible chemical building up in growing media

46 Soluble Fertilizer Dissolve in water and are applied as a liquid solution Fertigation fertilizing through irrigation water big advantage

47 Insoluble Fertilizer Includes granular and slow release applied to the growing media

48 Granular vs. Slow Release
relatively inexpensive easy to find Slow Release more expensive because it is coated more uniform release of nutrients over time period

49 20-10-20 Fertilizer Analysis N P K
Fertilizer analysis expresses weight as a percent of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium N P K

50 Fertilizer Analysis For Example
A 100 pound bag of fertilizer has an analysis of How many pounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are in the bag? Nitrogen: 100lbs X 15%=15lbs Phosphorus: 100lbs X 5%=5lbs Potassium: 100lbs X 15%=15lbs

51 Fertilizer Ratios A fertilizer with a analysis would have a 1:1:1 ratio A fertilizer with a analysis would have a 3:1:2 ratio What would be the ratio for a fertilizer with an analysis of ? 4:2:3

52 Application Procedures
Banding Sidedressing Topdressing Perforating Broadcasting Foliar spraying Fertigation

53 Banding Placing a band of fertilizer about two inches to the sides and about two inches below seed depth. DO NOT place below the seeds because fertilizer will burn the roots.

54 Sidedressing Placing a band of fertilizer near the soil surface and to the sides after seedlings emerge from the soil.

55 Topdressing Mixing fertilizer uniformly into the top one to two inches of growing media around the plant.

56 Perforating Placing fertilizer in 12”-18” holes drilled 18” to 24” around the canopy drip line of fruit trees. Cover the holes and fertilizer slowly dissolves.

57 Broadcasting Spreading fertilizer to cover the entire production area

58 Foliar Spraying Spraying micronutrients in a solution directly on plant leaves. Quickly corrects nutrient deficiencies Fertilizer concentration should not be too high or leaf burning will occur.

59 Fertigation Incorporating water-soluble fertilizer into the irrigation system of greenhouse and nursery crops. Concentrated solutions usually pass through proportioners or injectors to dilute to the correct ratio. Venturi-type Positive-displacement

60 Venturi-type Simple and inexpensive less accurate
depends on water pressure in the hose and in the smaller tube to proportion Example: Hozon

61 Positive-displacement
More expensive very accurate physically inject and mix specific amounts of concentrated solution and water Examples: commander proportioners, and Smith injectors

62 Rules for applying fertilizers
Method used should be practical, effective and cost efficient Method used affects nutrient availability for plant use Fertilizer must be dissolved and reach plant roots

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