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The Physical Geography of Europe Unit 4 – Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "The Physical Geography of Europe Unit 4 – Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Physical Geography of Europe Unit 4 – Chapter 11

2 I. Section I The Land

3 A. Seas, Peninsulas, and Islands Struggle with the sea –Most of Europe lies within 300 miles of a seacoast –In the Netherlands, about 25% of the land lies below sea level Dutch (people of Netherlands) have built dikes –With these dikes, they have reclaimed lands, called polders

4 Seas, Peninsulas, and Islands (Cont.) The Northern Peninsulas –Europe is a large peninsula made up of smaller peninsulas Scandinavian Peninsula – northern Europe –Glaciation occurred here and formed fjords Jutland Peninsula – mainland part of Denmark

5 A. Seas, Peninsulas, & Islands (cont) The Southern Peninsulas –Iberian Peninsula – SW edge of Europe – Spain & Portugal Only 20 miles of water (Straight of Gibraltar) separates this peninsula from Africa –Apennine Peninsula – Italy – shaped like a boot Peninsula is named after the Apennine Mountains located here (they include a volcano named Mt. Vesuvius) –Balkan Peninsula – SE Europe – Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, European part of Turkey

6 A. Seas, Peninsulas, & Islands (cont) Europe’s Islands –Iceland –British Isles – Great Britain & Ireland (& many small ones) Great Britain vs. United Kingdom vs. England – what is the confusion? –Islands in the Mediterranean Sea Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, and many smaller ones

7 B. Mountains & Plains Mountain Regions – Pyrenees – Alps Highest Peak – Mont Blanc Some major rivers originate here – Carpathians – Apennine Plains Regions – North European Plain (or Great European Plain) – Great Hungarian Plain

8 C. Water Systems Europe’s Rivers –Provide transportation links between major cities –Irrigate farmland –Provide electricity Major Rivers –Thames –Rhine – most important river in Western Europe –Danube – most important river in Eastern Europe –Others – Seine, Rhone, Loire, Elbe, Vistula, Po, Dnieper

9 D. Natural Resources Coal – UK, Germany, Ukraine, & Poland Iron Ore – N. Sweden, NE France, SE Ukraine Bauxite, Zinc, Manganese Peat – read paragraph on pg. 276

10 II. Section II Climate & Vegetation

11 A. Water & Land Large variation in climates – What things could cause this? Answer: – Northern Latitude – Relationship to the sea – Elevation

12 B. Western Europe Mostly Marine West Coast Climate Trees & Highlands – Deciduous & Coniferous trees – Timberline – mountain areas where the elevation is too high for trees to grow – Foehns – dry winds Foehns can trigger avalanches

13 C. Southern Europe Mostly Mediterranean Climate Some Humid Subtropical & Steppe Mistral – strong north winds from the Alps Siroccos – high, dry winds from North Africa – May bring high temperatures into the region Chaparral – shrubs & small trees that grow here

14 D. Eastern & Northern Europe Mostly Humid Continental Climate – Cold winters, hot summers – Mixed forests and some grasslands Some Subarctic & Tundra Climate – Far northern areas – Permafrost located here – Obviously, little to no vegetation

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