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February 2006ISAF1 International Sailing Federation Race Management Manual Part 2 Fleet Racing Edition 4 February 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "February 2006ISAF1 International Sailing Federation Race Management Manual Part 2 Fleet Racing Edition 4 February 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 February 2006ISAF1 International Sailing Federation Race Management Manual Part 2 Fleet Racing Edition 4 February 2006

2 ISAF2 Preface to Fourth Edition Part 1 – Regatta Organisation and Management Part 2 – Fleet racing Part 3 – Offshore racing Part 4 – Match Racing Part 5 – Team Racing

3 February 2006ISAF3 How to use this Manual As a Powerpoint Presentation –Use on a PC or Laptop for personal use –Use with a data projector in a classroom situation As a hard copy –Printed from Notes pages in Powerpoint

4 February 2006ISAF4 The Start of the Regatta Registration Measurement and Inspection

5 February 2006ISAF5 Sample Race Committee Daily Timetable 0830Meet at Race Office 0845Race Officers Conference RO; DRO; Safety; Mark Layers; Organising Representative; Jury; Team Leaders 0900Race Committee go afloat 0930Commence wind tracking 1030Commence laying the course 1100START

6 February 2006ISAF6 Race Officers working plan Develop a working method what are your upper and lower wind limits? which mark do you lay first? how do you locate your marks relative to each other? Be clear in your delegated duties.

7 February 2006ISAF7 Race Officers working plan Be able to adapt your working method to suit the experience of your race committee and other venues

8 February 2006ISAF8 Briefings –Competitors –Coaches –Team Leaders Race Officials Meeting

9 February 2006ISAF9 Wind direction Finding the average wind direction –Wind indicators –A wind vector –The average wind

10 February 2006ISAF10 Wind strength Finding the wind strength –Anemometers –Lower wind strength –Upper wind strength Follow the published wind range guidelines

11 February 2006ISAF11 Selecting a suitable course Course geometry –Triangle and windward-leeward –windward-leeward –Trapezoid –Gates –Offset marks

12 February 2006ISAF12 Windward-Leeward-Triangle Course Course angles can be; –60 0 –45 0 (90 0 at mark 2) –70 0 (to give a close reaching leg and a broad reaching leg) The finish can also be located downwind of mark 3

13 February 2006ISAF13 Windward-Leeward Alternatives for this course are; –No gate at Mark 2 –More rounds –Finish upwind of mark 1

14 February 2006ISAF14 Trapezoid – Inner and Outer Loops Two parallel windward-leeward courses Use with two classes, or One class using flights

15 February 2006ISAF15 Location of the Race Area Important factors affecting race management –Clean winds; avoid cliffs and areas that create bends in the wind –Even depth of water; ease of setting marks –Tidal currents; these should be avoided if at all possible –Space for more than one course; do not overlap course areas

16 February 2006ISAF16 The windward leg There are three things to be considered when positioning mark 1 –The mean wind direction –The distance to mark 1 from the start line –The effect of any cross course currents

17 February 2006ISAF17 The downwind leg The accuracy of this leg to the wind is very important –Especially for asymmetric boats –Cross currents can have a greater detrimental effect on this leg than on the upwind leg

18 February 2006ISAF18 The reaching legs All angles The advantage of the triangle is the variety of course angles for the reaching legs Mark 2

19 February 2006ISAF19 The offset mark –Distance and angle depend on the requirements of the class –Designed to keep boats commencing run with spinnakers separate from boats approaching mark 1 on a beat Mark 1 Alternative positions for the offset mark Position 1 Position 2 Wind

20 February 2006ISAF20 The gate Most windward-leeward courses have a gate as the leeward mark –The gate requires two boat length circles around each mark, with a space between the circles –Therefore minimum width of a gate is five boat lengths –Most gates are set between 8 and 10 boat lengths

21 February 2006ISAF21 The trapezoid The trapezoid was introduced to accommodate two classes on the same course area using; –The same start line –The same finish line –But having two almost separate courses

22 February 2006ISAF22 Tidal Compensation - windward leg A rule of thumb guide is; for every knot of tide set the windward mark downtide 8 0 in light winds, double the allowance for tides diagonal to the wind, halve the allowance W2 W1 Force 3 wind 1 knot tide 8080

23 February 2006ISAF23 Tidal Compensation - leeward leg The adjustment of the running leg to the tide is critical for a good race The same rule of thumb applies but greater accuracy is needed L2 L1 Force 3 wind 1 knot tide 8080

24 February 2006ISAF24 Tidal Compensation - a compromise Since a square leeward leg is more critical than a square upwind leg, this is a good compromise But, dont over compensate 2 Force 3 wind 1 knot tide

25 February 2006ISAF25 Tidal compensation – other courses The X course The zigzag course Current Wind

26 February 2006ISAF26 Position of the Start Line When positioning the start line within the course area the following need to be taken into consideration –Tidal data (time of high and low water) –Depth of water –Sea bed –The weather forecast

27 February 2006ISAF27 The starting line - length The formula is: –Number of boats x length of the boat plus 10% to 50% Other factors are: –size and manoeuvrability of boats –sea conditions –wind strength –current

28 February 2006ISAF28 The starting line - bias Bias used to be applied to give the Port end starter a slight advantage –The longer the line the less bias required –The shorter the line the more bias required It is better to start with a line at 90 0 to the wind and then fine tune it later Good Bad Wind

29 February 2006ISAF29 Adjusting bias for tidal effect Wind Bad Current Boats are carried towards the pin by the current, By moving the pin as shown, boats can now clear the pin Move pin down wind Good

30 February 2006ISAF30 Laying the start line Anchor the Race Committee Boat; –So that the course can be adjusted to a new wind without moving the CB –Use a long anchor line so that the start line can be fine tuned by pulling in or letting out the anchor line. –Position the pin end at 90 0 to the mean wind

31 February 2006ISAF31 Adjusting start line bias if one side of the course is favoured Weak tide in Bay Strong tide Wind Starboard bias on the start Mark 1 Factors to consider are: wind shift wind velocity waves current

32 February 2006ISAF32 Deputy Race Officer duty The Deputy Race Officer should at this point –Organise the committee boat personnel All visual signals ready All sound signals ready Watches all checked and times verified Recorders in position Course ready for display This leaves the Race Officer to concentrate on preparing for the race

33 February 2006ISAF33 Displaying the course The rules require that the course to be sailed is displayed no later than the Warning signal. –Use the system described in the Sailing Instructions to display the course –If a magnetic bearing to the first mark is required this should also be displayed at the same time

34 February 2006ISAF34 Starting The standard starting system is described in the rules –This should be used whenever possible –The time between the warning signal and the preparatory signal can be varied –When racing back-to-back a Sailing Instruction is required to warn sailors of an impending starting sequence –Decision to Race - Windsurfing –Starting penalties are incorporated into the preparatory signal

35 February 2006ISAF35 Postponement There are four Postponement signals –Indefinite Postponement –Specific time Postponement –Races Postponed – further signals ashore –Races Postponed to another day

36 February 2006ISAF36 The Warning Signal The first signal in the starting sequence –This should be displayed precisely at the time stated in the Sailing Instructions –Sailors will start their stopwatches on this signal –To assist sailors, many class flags bear the sail insignia of the class about to start –Accompanied by one sound signal

37 February 2006ISAF37 The Preparatory signals There are five preparatory signals –P – no penalties –I – round the ends –I with Z –Z –Black

38 February 2006ISAF38 Round the Ends rule Flag I and 1 sound signal –Can cause the fleet to bunch at each end –May create a large gap in the middle of the line

39 February 2006ISAF39 20% penalty rule Flag Z and 1 sound signal –The penalty area is the triangle formed by the start line and mark 1 –A boat which enters the penalty area in the minute before her start can dip back over the start line to the pre-start side –Each time she infringes the penalty area after a General Recall or an Abandon signal, she is subject to an additional 20% penalty

40 February 2006ISAF40 The Black flag The Black flag and 1 sound signal –This penalty should only be used as a last resort –For the race committee it creates as many problems as it solves –A good Race Officer will use this flag very reluctantly!

41 February 2006ISAF41 Removal of the Preparatory signal This is done precisely one minute before the start signal –A long sound signal is made at this time –If a penalty signal has been used as a preparatory signal, this is the time when the penalty period commences

42 February 2006ISAF42 Voice Recorder From approximately 90 seconds before the start signal, record all you see on your tape recorder –Describe the scene as if you were a commentator making a radio broadcast –Wind conditions –Sea state –Boat numbers –The position of boats on the line –Your ability to see the pin end –Any other relevant information which will be of assistance in a redress hearing

43 February 2006ISAF43 Sighting the Line Stand behind the mast at least 1 metre away. Do not fall overboard! Sight on the pin-end Have the correct number of people sighting the line Repeat at the pin-end Dont forget that both ends of the line are moving Record everything on your voice recorder.

44 February 2006ISAF44 The broad start line The concept of the broad start line was first used in 1998 at the World Championships of Sailing –With modern high performance boats accelerating quickly across the start line it is extremely difficult to be very precise in judging the line –If the start line were painted on the water at a width of 30 cm then a boat entering that area is given the benefit of the doubt

45 February 2006ISAF45 Communication with the Pin End The most efficient method is by mobile telephone –It is a closed circuit –Both parties can speak at the same time By radio –Open to anyone to listen –Only one person can speak at once

46 February 2006ISAF46 Flag V The Outside Help rule now allows Race Committees to communicate with competitors during the start sequence –By a visual signal –By radio –A suitable Sailing Instruction is in the Sailing Instructions Guide

47 February 2006ISAF47 Individual Recall Flag X and 1 sound signal –This signal must be displayed within 4 seconds of the start signal –It must be accompanied simultaneously with a sound signal –It remains on display until all OCS boats have returned and started or for 4 minutes or until 1 minute before the next signal –It is removed without a sound signal –Make every effort to identify all OCS boats

48 February 2006ISAF48 General Recall Flag 1 st Sub – 2 sound signals –Should be used if all boats over early have not been identified –A good start line will reduce the need for this signal –A short start line with fewer boats will make this signal almost redundant –Take care when penalty signals are used as the Preparatory signal, especially the Black flag –Removed with 1 sound signal

49 February 2006ISAF49 After the start race control Once the race has started the Race Officer has a number of duties –Monitoring the weather conditions Is the wind speed dropping? Is it still safe to race? Are the time limits being met? Has the wind moved left or right? Are all the marks still in place? –Recording At the end of each round (or mark)

50 February 2006ISAF50 Abandoning a race Flag N with 3 sound signals –This signal can only be used after the start There are two other Abandon signals. Each require 3 sound signals –Both can be used at any time –N over H –N over A

51 February 2006ISAF51 Changing the next leg of the course Change of bearing of the next mark Flag C with a repetitive sound signal –This must be displayed with either A new bearing for the next mark Or A red rectangle when the new position is to port of the original Or A green triangle when the new position is to starboard of the original

52 February 2006ISAF52 Changing the next leg of the course Increase or decrease in wind strength Flag C with a repetitive sound signal –This must be displayed with either A plus sign if the leg is to be significantly increased in length Or A minus sign if the leg is to be significantly reduced in length

53 February 2006ISAF53 + Track to next mark Signal boat Track of boats approaching the mark Mark change signal boat position

54 February 2006ISAF54 Race Management and Rule 42 Some classes allow parts of rule 42 to be –Switched off –Switched on Different classes have different wind speeds at which this system becomes operative Race Committees are responsible for the decision and application of the appropriate SI

55 February 2006ISAF55 Rule 42 signals Flag O – rule 42 does NOT apply Flag R – rule 42 applies A repetitive sound signal is made when either flag is displayed

56 February 2006ISAF56 Position of boat making the signal Mark boat making the signal. This boat must be in position before the first boat approaches the mark and remain there until all boats have passed. A repetitive sound signal is made until the last boat rounds the mark. Wind direction Course to next mark

57 February 2006ISAF57 Wind speeds The wind speed at which this system operates is to be found in the class rules If the wind speed is 12 knots then the Race Officer requires a consistent wind of 1 knot above or below this speed before activating the system Before activating the signal the Jury boats should be informed and a response received

58 February 2006ISAF58 Communication with the Jury The Jury should be informed at an early stage so that; –They are able to get their Jury boats into position –They are aware that there is a change in the pumping rule

59 February 2006ISAF59 Mark missing Flag M with repetitive sound signal –The object displaying this signal replaces a missing mark –The object may be a boat or another buoy Before taking the above action, try to replace the mark or use a substitute of similar appearance

60 February 2006ISAF60 Shorten course Flag S – two sound signals –One or more legs cut off the course displayed at the warning signal –Signal made as boats commence leg towards new shorten course finishing line –Signal displayed on committee boat is further away from fleet than any other time a signal is displayed –Shortening a leg –Some events do not allow shorten course

61 February 2006ISAF61 Location of the Finish Line There are three possible locations for the finishing line –Upwind near or at the windward mark –Downwind using the original start line –On a reaching leg

62 February 2006ISAF62 Laying a Finish Line On an upwind finishing line the line must be set at –90 0 to the wind direction On all other legs of the course the finishing lie must be set at –90 0 to the last leg of the course The finishing line should be 50 to 60 metres in length

63 February 2006ISAF63 The Blue flag The Blue flag indicates that the Race Committee boat is on station at the Finish. It should be displayed, without a sound signal, when the leading boat commences the last leg to the Finish Line

64 February 2006ISAF64 The Finish of the race –A boat finishes when any part of her hull, crew or equipment crosses the finishing line from the direction of the last mark –A boat is racing until she finishes and clears the finishing line Both boats have finished but are still racing Both boats have finished and cleared the finishing line

65 February 2006ISAF65 Clearing the finish line and marks This boat has finished and cleared the finish line. He may go home This boat has finished and hit the finish mark BEFORE clearing the finish line. He must now take a penalty Once he has completed the penalty and crossed the finish line a second time, that is his recorded position.

66 February 2006ISAF66 Recording Recording the finish –Recording teams are a reader and a writer –The reader calls the numbers out, recording them on a voice recorder. –The writer keeps a paper and pencil record. –Always have at least two recording teams –For big fleets have more Remember –A start you can do over and over, the finish only once!

67 February 2006ISAF67 Consistency from day to day Follow same procedures from day to day. These include: –When races are delayed –Calling OCS –Starting penalties –Length of starting line and finishing line –Course configuration and procedures for setting the course

68 February 2006ISAF68 Post Race tasks Accounting for all boats –For safety –For scoring Results service Protest time Talk to the Jury Chairman

69 February 2006ISAF69 Evaluation Always analyse your performance What could you do better Talk to the other officials, but most important, talk to the sailors

70 February 2006ISAF70 Redress hearings Do not get upset because a competitor is questioning your eyesight! Record all timings and RC actions on paper and on tape. Try to correct before the redress hearing Be factual in your presentation of evidence Describe your operating procedures Do not argue

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