Racing Rules of Sailing for Match Racing Luca Canali Versoix, 18-6-2009 Acknowledgments: Michał Kwiatek, Gigi Rolandi
Outline Review of the main rules and points of interest for match racing sailors – Starting procedure – Protest and penalty system – A few hints to what rules mean in practice – Some basic MR tactics Review of basic RRS (selected part 2 rules) Non-goal: full explanation of MR rules
What is match racing? WIKIPEDIA: A match race is a race between two competitors, going head- to-head. The term may be best known as a regatta for two sailing boats racing around a course. It is differentiated from a fleet race, which almost always involves three or more competitors, by slight variations in the rules and large variations in tactics.
Main Differences from Fleet Racing Regarding Racing Rules Start procedure is quite different Penalty system is completely different – Moreover there is an umpire on the water You have a strong interest in knowing the rules to be able to protest and moreover not being protested – 3 penalties and the match is lost (black flag)
7 (Digression) Entry Enter at 4 minutes with Boat Speed Know your entry angle For the most part control is on the right (From Steve Wrigley, South Atlantic Yacht Racing Association, 2003)
8 Digression: “the lands of OZ” (From Steve Wrigley, South Atlantic Yacht Racing Association, 2003)
9 Digression, Port Entry – Port Entry – Enter on time – Get to lower or higher rung – Stay clear as the give way boat. – If dialed up stay clear and complete your TACK! (From Steve Wrigley, South Atlantic Yacht Racing Association, 2003)
10 Digression, Sarboard Entry – Starboard Entry – Enter on time – Prevent crossing – Keep port on the port side – If dialing keep clear – Both : use your sails to handle the boat (From Steve Wrigley, South Atlantic Yacht Racing Association, 2003)
11 Digression: First Crossing (From Steve Wrigley, South Atlantic Yacht Racing Association, 2003)
After Start Signal, OCS (C3.2) In practice: if a boat is on the course side at the start a flag will clearly indicate which one.
Penalty System in MR, Main Points There is an umpire on the water – Boat protests are decided very quickly on the water and penalties are shown by flags – You don’t have to take a penalty turn unless required by the umpire – The umpire will signal if penalty is taken correctly You can delay taking a penalty
Penalty system In practice: – you will often do your penalty ‘turn’ just close to the finish line in Match Racing – Notable exception: you have 2 penalties and/or a red flag, then you MUST do your penalty ASAP
Protesting Rule C6.1 A boat may protest another boat – (a) under a rule of Part 2, except rule 14, by clearly displaying flag Y immediately after an incident in which she was involved; – (b) under any rule not listed in rule C6.1(a) or C6.2 by clearly displaying a red flag as soon as possible after the incident. C6.2 A boat may not protest another boat under – (a) rule 14, unless damage or injury results; – (b) a rule of Part 2, unless she was involved in the incident; – (c) rule 31 or 42; or – (d) rule C4 or C7. [note C4 is about starting and C7 about penalty system]
16 July 2001(From G. Rolandi 2002)20 Right of way 10: port boat shall keep clear of starboard boat. 11: when boats are on the same tack and overlapped, a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat. 12: when boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead.
16 July 2001(From G. Rolandi 2002)21 Right of way 13: while tacking. After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During this time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. NO ! 2 Special for MR: After the foot of the mainsail of a boat sailing downwind crosses the centreline she shall keep clear until her mainsail has filled on the other tack.
16 July 2001(From G. Rolandi 2002)22 Avoiding contacts 14: A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However a right-of-way boat need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear, and need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear, and shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage.shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage. 2
16 July 2001(From G. Rolandi 2002)23 Acquiring right of way 15: When a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear, unless she acquires right-of-way because of the other boat’s action. NOOOO !!! Here TIMING is very important, as a consequence of the word initially ! 2
16 July 2001YCC24 Changing course 16.1 : When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear. Here TIMING is also important. The red boat CANNOT LUFF ABRUPTLY. This rule and the previous one are very important. They essentially say that you CANNOT make a quick change of course (when you acquire right-of-way or you have it already ) and claim to room before giving the other boat time and possibility to react.
16 July 2001YCC25 Changing course 16.2 : After the start, when boats are crossing on opposite tacks, the starboard boat shall not change course if as result the port boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear. OK for MR, NO in Fleet Racing The red boat CANNOT bear up forcing the blue boat to tack !!! This rule does not apply in match races
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)26 On the same tack; proper course 17 : If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack, she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain on the same tack and overlapped within that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear. NO !!!! 2
Some Notes on Marks in MR In Match Racing marks are left to starboard – The ‘other way around’ than fleet racing – This has the potential to create some complex ‘situations’ at the windward mark – In match racing ‘the zone’ is defined as a circle of radius 2 boat lengths It’s 3 boat lengths in fleet racing RRS 2009-2012
16 July 2001(From G. Rolandi 2002)28 Rounding and passing marks Rule 18 Rule 18 applies between boats when they are required to leave a mark on the same side and at least one of them is in the zone. However, it does not apply (a)between boats on opposite tacks, on a beat to windward, (b) between boats on opposite tacks when the proper course at the mark for one but not both of them is to tack, (c) between a boat approaching a mark and one leaving it, or (d) if the mark is a continuing obstruction, in which case rule 19 applies.
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)29 Giving mark-room; keep clear 18.2 a) When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule 18.2(b) applies. If the inside boat has right-of-way, the outside boat shall also keep clear.
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)30 Giving mark-room; keep clear 18.2 b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give her mark-room. If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boat, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear. 2
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)31 Giving mark-room; keep clear 18.2 c) When a boat is required to give mark-room by rule 18.2(b), she shall continue to do so even if later an overlap is broken or a new overlap begins... If the clear astern boat becomes overlapped outside, she shall also give the inside boat room. If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside, she is not entitled to room. 2 WIND
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)32 Giving mark-room; keep clear 18.2 c) Important exception:...However, if either boat passes head to wind or if the boat entitled to mark-room leaves the zone, rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply. 2 The blue boat cannot tack until the red has tacked ! (Rule 13, keep clear while tacking) Wind
16 July 2001 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012) 33 Giving mark-room; keep clear 18.2 (d) If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. (e) If a boat obtained an inside overlap from clear astern and, from the time the overlap began, the outside boat has been unable to give mark-room, she is not required to give it. 3
16 July 200134 Tacking at mark (fleet racing) 18.3 If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them changes tack, and as a result is subject to rule 13 in the zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not thereafter apply. The boat that changed tack (a)shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark on the required side, and (b)shall give mark-room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her 3 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)
16 July 200135 Tacking at mark, match racing 18.3 18.3 If two boats were on opposite tacks and one of them changes tack and as a result is subject to rule 13.1 in the zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not thereafter apply. If, once the boat that changed tack has completed her tack, (a) the other boat cannot by luffing avoid becoming over-lapped inside her, she is entitled to mark-room, the boat that changed tack shall keep clear and rule 15 does not apply; (b) the other boat can by luffing avoid becoming overlapped inside her, the boat that changed tack is entitled to mark-room. 3 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)
16 July 200136 Gybing at a Mark 18.4 When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark than needed to sail that course. Rule 18.4 does not apply at a gate mark. No !!!!! 3 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)
16 July 200137 Exoneration 18.5) When a boat is taking mark-room to which she is entitled, she shall be exonerated (a)If as result of the other boat failing to give her mark-room, she breaks a rule of Section A, or (b)if, by rounding the mark on her proper course, she breaks a rule of Section A or rule 15 or 16.. 3 (From G. Rolandi 2002 + updated 2009-2012)
Other rules 21.2 A boat taking a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not 23.1 If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing. [C2.8] Rule 23.1 is changed to ‘If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing or an umpire boat.’ 23.2 Except when sailing her proper course, a boat shall not interfere with a boat taking a penalty or sailing on another leg
Resources ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing 2009 – 2012 – Part II, IV – Definitions – Appendix C Match Racing Rules – Match Race Call Book Available at http://www.sailing.orghttp://www.sailing.org YCC Match Races web page: http://www.cern.ch/yachting/matchRace http://www.cern.ch/yachting/matchRace