2File SystemsFAT/FAT32NTFSFAT or NTFS?Microsoft FAT vs NTFS
3FAT/FAT32FAT – older, for management of smaller disks. Compatible with 2003/NT/2K/9X/MS-DOS, OS/2, etc.FAT32 – enhanced version, available with Win95 SR2, with addt’l 32-bit application supportThe only option if a partition needs to be used for dual-booting with another O/S (e.g. DOS, Win 9x, etc.)More efficient option for smaller disks/partitions (up to 500 MB)
4NTFSNative Windows file system. Can only be read by NT, Win2K and Windows 2003/XP OS.Supports file/folder compression. Larger disk/partition/file support. Built-in file/folder security. Fault-tolerance support (RAID)NTFS5 has addt’l features of dynamic volumes, disk quotas, encryption (EFS), FAT32 supportMore efficient for larger disk/partitions – over 500MB, especially over 2GB. Can combine multiple physical disks under 1 driver letter
5FAT -> NTFS ConvertFAT can be converted to NTFS w/o the loss of dataCan’t convert NTFS to FAT w/o backing up and restoring files.CONVERT drive: /FS:NTFSRequires some addt’l disk space for NTFS
6Disk Storage TypesBasic – uses static partitions (physical disk divisions) that can’t span physical drives. Use industry-standard partitioning and formatting and can contain up to 4 primary and 1 extended partitions, as well as logical drivesDynamic – uses volumes that can span physical drives. Supports advanced options, including fault-tolerance. Unlimited number of volumes. No other O/S can access dynamic storage; not supported on laptops.
7Upgrading Disk from Basic to Dynamic In cases where a volume crosses multiple disks, all related disks must be upgradedAny other O/S located on a partition will be rendered inoperableRemovable media can’t be upgradedCan’t convert back from dynamic to basic
8Partition ManagementPrimary - from which you can boot an OS, such as MS-DOS or Win2K Server. Can only have 4 per disk.Extended – serves to overcome limit of 4 primary partition, is not bootable. Can only have 1 per disk.System – contains O/S boot files. Can only exists on a primaryBoot – contains O/S system files. Can exist on a primary or extended.Partition needs to be formatted with a file system after it’s created, and it can then be assigned a drive letter.
9Volume ManagementDynamic disks support 5 volume types: - Simple - Spanned - Striped - Mirrored - Raid-5The volume containing boot files is called system volume, the volume containing system files (WINNT folder ) – boot volume
10RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive (Independent) Disks Standard to provide better performance and FTSoftware or Hardware RAIDRAID levels – 0 through 5
11Simple VolumeA portion of a disk or an entire disk that is setup as a dynamic diskCan be extended with an unallocated spaceDoesn’t provide FT
12Spanned VolumeMethod of combining free space on 2 to 32 physical disks into a single volume with available space on each of the spanned disks of varying sizeStorage is accomplished by filling the space on one disk and moving to each subsequent spanned diskNot FTCan be extended (only those formatted with NTFS)
13Striped Volume – RAID 0Similar to spanned in that both permit 2-32 disks combined.Logically distributes the information simultaneously across all the disks, unlike spanned which sequentially store data. This architecture provides faster I/ONot FTFree space areas on each disk need to be of equal size.
14RAID-5 Volume Similar to striped, but is fault-tolerant Logically distributes the information simultaneously across all 3 or more disks, one of which stores parityIf 1 disk fails, data can be reconstructed, but if more than 1 – it can’t.Writing is slower than striped, but reading is the same. When 1 disk fails performance degradesCalculate usable space: parity takes 1/n of the data, where n= number of disks in the volume.Free space areas on each drive need to be of equal size.
15Mirrored Volume – RAID 1Creating a shadow copy of data on a backup diskRequires 2 disksMost guaranteed FT, but less efficient use of disk spaceRead performance is the same as on any single disk drive, Write is slower than on single disk, but faster than RAID-5. No performance degradation when 1 disk fails.Disk Duplexing – 2 drives/2 controllers
16FT for System/Boot volumes Important: System volume (containing boot files) and Boot volume (containing system files) CAN’T exist on a spanned volume, striped volume or RAID-5 volume. So to have fault-tolerant system/boot volumes you need to use mirrored volume.