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70-290: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment, Enhanced Chapter 6: Managing Disks and Data Storage.

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Presentation on theme: "70-290: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment, Enhanced Chapter 6: Managing Disks and Data Storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 70-290: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment, Enhanced Chapter 6: Managing Disks and Data Storage

2 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced2 Objectives Understand concepts related to disk management Manage partitions and volumes on a Windows Server 2003 system Understand the purpose of mounted drives and how to implement them Understand the fault tolerant disk strategies natively supported in Windows Server 2003

3 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced3 Objectives (continued) Determine disk and volume status information and import foreign disks Maintain disks on a Windows Server 2003 system using a variety of native utilities

4 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced4 Disk Management Concepts Windows Server 2003 supports two data storage types: Basic disks Uses traditional disk management techniques Has primary partitions, extended partitions, logical drives Dynamic disks Does not use traditional disk partitioning No restriction on number of volumes implemented on one disk

5 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced5 Basic Disks Maximum of four primary partitions or three primary and one extended partition on a disk Each primary partition: Can use FAT, FAT32, or NTFS file system Has a drive letter Boot partition Operating system files reside on boot partition Can be located on a primary partition or logical drive

6 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced6 Primary Partitions A basic drive must contain at least one and no more than four primary partitions One partition is the system (or active) partition Contains files to start operating system Usually drive C on Windows Can also be used for traditional data storage

7 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced7 Extended Partitions and Logical Drives An extended partition: Is created from free hard disk space that is not partitioned, formatted, or assigned a drive letter Allows you to extend the four-partition limit Can be divided into logical drives Each drive is then formatted and assigned a drive letter

8 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced8 Volume Sets and Stripe Sets Only on Windows NT Server 4.0 Volume set Two or more partitions combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter Stripe set Two or more disks striped for RAID level 0 or 5 Windows Server 2003 and 2000 provide backward compatibility Can use but not create

9 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced9 Dynamic Disks Can set up a large number of volumes per disk Volumes are similar to partitions but with additional capabilities Reasons to implement dynamic disks include Can extend NTFS volumes Can configure RAID volumes for fault tolerance and performance Can reactivate missing or offline disks Can change disk settings with restarting computer

10 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced10 Simple Volume and Spanned Volume A simple volume: Dedicated, formatted portion of space on a dynamic disk NTFS volumes can be extended (not system or boot) A spanned volume: Space in 2 to 32 dynamic disks Treated as a single volume Allows you to maximize use of scattered space across several disks

11 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced11 Striped Volume Referred to as RAID level 0 Implemented for performance enhancement, particularly for storage of large files Not fault tolerant Requires from 2 to 32 disks Data is written in 64 KB blocks across rows in the volume

12 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced12 Striped Volume (continued)

13 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced13 Managing Partitions and Volumes Primary tool is Disk Management Central facility for Viewing information Creating partitions and volumes Deleting partitions and volumes Converting basic disks to dynamic disks

14 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced14 Managing Partitions and Volumes (continued)

15 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced15 Managing Disk Properties Disk Management: Can be added to a custom MMC Most commonly accessed via Storage section of Computer Management Used for the creation, deletion, and management of disks, partitions, and volumes Shares some property sheets with Windows Explorer, Device Manager

16 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced16 Managing Disk Properties (continued)

17 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced17 Extending Volumes Volume can be extended unless Functioning as boot or system volume Possible tools Disk Management DISKPART command-line utility

18 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced18 Mounted Drives Mounting a drive is an alternative to assigning it a drive letter A mounted drive is represented as a folder with a normal path To mount a drive: Must be on an NTFS volume Must be an empty folder Reasons: 26 drive letter limit Path access is convenient Backups

19 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced19 Fault Tolerant Disk Strategies Fault tolerance The ability to recover gracefully from hardware or software failure Hard disks do fail periodically Software RAID provides various levels of fault tolerance A combination of RAID and backup can minimize disruption and loss of data

20 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced20 RAID Levels Redundant Array of Independent Disk strategies Set of standards for: Lengthening disk life Preventing data loss Enabling uninterrupted access to data Windows Server 2003 supports level 0, 1, and 5 RAID level 0 Striping with no other redundancy features RAID level 1 Disk mirroring (duplicating data from main disk to backup disk)

21 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced21 RAID Levels (continued) RAID level 2 Disk striping, error correction across all disks RAID level 3 Disk striping, error correction on 1 disk RAID level 4 Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum on 1 disk RAID level 5 Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum across all disks

22 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced22 RAID Levels (continued) Supported on FAT and NTFS Either RAID level 1 or 5 is usually recommended Considerations: Placement of boot and system files Number of disks required or supported Cost (per megabyte of storage) Amount of memory required Read and write access speed

23 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced23 Striped Volume (RAID 0) Reasons to use: Reduce wear on disk drives by equalizing load Increase disk performance No specific fault tolerance support Can be created using New Volume Wizard

24 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced24 Mirrored Volume (RAID 1) Creates a copy of data on a backup disk Requires 2 disks Highly effective fault tolerance since a complete copy of data is available Disk read performance is equal to non-mirrored Disk write time is doubled Created through New Volume Wizard

25 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced25 Mirrored Volume (continued)

26 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced26 RAID-5 Volume Requires a minimum of 3 disks Provides good fault tolerance Parity information distributed across all drives Performance slower than with a striped volume (parity information must be computed and stored)

27 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced27 RAID-5 Volume (continued) Read access is equal to striped volume Storage requirement for parity information is 1/n with n the number of disks Created through New Volume Wizard

28 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced28 RAID-5 Volume (continued)

29 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced29 Software RAID and Hardware RAID Software RAID uses existing hardware and implements particular software strategies Hardware RAID requires specialized hardware (more expensive) but lessens the burden on the OS Often implemented on the adapter for disk drives Often includes a battery backup Advantages include: faster read and write, mixed RAID levels, failed disk hot-swap, better setup options

30 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced30 Monitoring Disk Health and Importing Foreign Disks Disk Management provides status information on disks and volumes Number of different status descriptions Windows Server 2003 provides the ability to import disks from other servers if necessary (foreign disks)

31 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced31 Disk and Volume Status Descriptions Optimal descriptions: Disk should be ONLINE Volume should be HEALTHY Common volume messages include: Failed, failed redundancy, formatting, healthy, regenerating, resyncing, unknown Common disk messages include: Audio CD, foreign, initializing, missing, no media, not initialized, online, online (errors), offline, unreadable

32 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced32 Importing Foreign Disks Used when a server fails Disks from the server can be moved to another server When first connected, the disk status will be foreign and it will not be accessible Use the Import Foreign Disks option on the disk If multiple disks are imported Each disk is imported individually Default is that disk will use its original drive letter but an available letter is chosen if there is a conflict

33 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced33 Other Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities Introduces disk-related utilities other than Disk Management Some provide extra features or functions Some are similar but are accessible from the command line

34 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced34 Check Disk Allows you to scan a disk for bad sectors and file system errors Disk cant be in use during scan Two start options: Automatically fix file system errors Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors CHKDSK command-line utility has similar functionality

35 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced35 CONVERT CONVERT is a command-line utility Converts existing FAT and FAT32 partitions or volumes to NTFS Leaves existing data intact

36 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced36 Disk Cleanup Allows an administrator to determine where disk space is being used and could potentially be freed Files that can be removed include: Temporary internet files Downloaded program files Files in recycle bin Windows temporary files No longer used Windows components and programs Can also compress files Command-line version is CLEANMGR

37 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced37 Disk Defragmenter Free disk space eventually become fragmented as files are created and removed Results in slower access and higher disk wear Defragmentation attempts to place files in contiguous areas Defragmentation should be done periodically

38 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced38 DISKPART Command-line utility for managing disks, volumes, partitions Uses include: Configuring active partition, assigning drive letters, implementing fault tolerance schemes, etc. Can manage disks from within scripts Get the complete syntax and options with DISKPART /?

39 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced39 FORMAT Used to implement a file system on an existing partition Also used on MS-DOS and Windows 9X Has a variety of advanced settings Setting allocation unit (cluster) size Command-line version can be run from scripts Get the complete syntax and options with FORMAT /?

40 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced40 FSUTIL Used with FAT, FAT32, and NTFS file systems Includes many advanced features, requires experienced user Information available includes: Listings of drives, volume information, NTFS-specific data Tasks include: Managing disk quotas, displaying free space Get complete information in Help and Support Center

41 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced41 MOUNTVOL Used to create, delete, or list volume mount points from command line VolumeName parameter is difficult to use Complicates adding new mount point Doesnt affect removing mount points Get complete syntax and options with MOUNTVOL /?

42 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced42 Summary Windows Server 2003 supports data storage types: Basic disk Divided into 4 primary partitions or 3 primary and 1 extended partition with logical drives Dynamic disk Can be divided into a number of volumes on 1 disk A number of disks can be configured in 1 volume Support simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, RAID-5 volumes Primary tool for disk management: Disk Management

43 Guide to MCSE , Enhanced43 Summary (continued) Fault tolerance implemented through RAID strategies Most highly recommended are: RAID level 1 (mirrored volumes) RAID level 5 (striped, distributed parity info) Hardware RAID very effective but more costly A number of command-line tools and other utilities are available for disk management and cleanup


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