2 A. The Science of Geology 1. Geologist -- scientists studying the forces that make and shape planet Earth.Study Rock for-chemical, physical propertiesmapping locationdescribe landforms and featuresclues to Earth’s history
3 B. Studying Surface Changes 1. What causes Earth’s surface to change?a). Constructive ForcesBuild up mountains and landmassesEx: island formationb). Destructive ForcesWear away mountains and other features on the surfaceEx: water and/or wind
4 C. Finding Indirect Evidence 1. Seismic wavesa). study how they travel through Earthb). Speeds, paths, datareveals layers of Earth
5 D. A Journey to the Center of the Earth Temperature…increasesAndPressure…a force pushing on a surface or area…as you go deeper inside Earth
6 D. A Journey to the Center of the Earth 3 Layers to the EarthCrustMantleCoreouter coreinner core
7 1. The Crust Outer most layer Thinnest layer -- ranging from 5 - 40 km Continental crust graniteOceanic crust basalt
8 2. The Mantle Located beneath the crust Is about 2,900 km wide A layer of hot rockHas 3 layersLithospheremeans stonerigid layerAsthenospheremeans weakSoft , tar-likeLower Mantlesolid2. The Mantle
9 a). Outer Core 3. The Core is divided into 2 sections: Beneath the mantlemolten iron and nickela thick liquidmovements create Earth’s magnetic field
10 b). Inner Core Beneath Outer Core A dense ball of solid iron and nickel
11 E. Earth’s Magnetic Field Earth’s outer corespins around asolid inner coreof molteniron that createsa magnetic field.
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