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Inside Earth: Chapter 1- Plate Tectonics Section 1: Earth’s Interior.

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Presentation on theme: "Inside Earth: Chapter 1- Plate Tectonics Section 1: Earth’s Interior."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Inside Earth: Chapter 1- Plate Tectonics Section 1: Earth’s Interior

3 What caused a 2.5 square kilometer landmass to form in the ocean off the coast of Iceland in 1963? An erupting volcano underneath the ocean caused an island form and to continually to grow in size for many years

4 What did the Icelanders name this landmass? Who did they name it after? Icelanders named their new landmass Surtsey the god of fire

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6 The Science of Geology

7 A scientist who studies the forces that make and shape planet Earth are called ______. geologists

8 Geologists study the _____ and _____ characteristics of ______, the material that forms the surface of Earth. Chemical Physical Rock

9 Geologists divide the forces that change the earth’s surface into two groups: _____ _____ & _____ _____. Constructive forces Destructive forces

10 The force that builds up mountains and other landforms is known as a ______. Constructive Force

11 The force that slowly wears away at mountains and eventually, every other feature on the surface of Earth is known as a _____ force. Destructive force

12 List some other examples of this type of a constructive force. Islands from volcanoes Flooding-fertile soil Weather-rain

13 List some examples of this type of destructive force. Ocean waves Weathering&erosion Earthquakes

14 Continent A Landmass that is surrounded by water on all sides Earth has seven continents

15 Figure 2: Observing – What are the geologists in each picture doing? The geologist in the top picture are studying the characteristics of a cave The geologist in the bottom picture is investigating rock layers

16 Geologists examine the layers of Earth to answer what three questions? How old is Earth? How has Earth’s surface changed over time? Why are there oceans, and how did they form?

17 Checkpoint: What kind of indirect evidence do geologists use to study the structure of Earth? Geologists record seismic waves and study how they travel through Earth

18 Guide For Reading: What does a geologist do? Geologists study the processes that create Earth’s features and search for clues about Earth’s history.

19 A Journey to the Center of the Earth

20 Describe the features of a vehicle that would be needed to travel to the center of Earth. A drill A pressure detecting device A temperature detecting device A device that detects composition

21 Describe the temperature change that takes place as the depth inside Earth increases. Rock near the surface would be cool About 20 meters down the rock gets warmer For every 40 meters that descends a temperature increases 1°C

22 The force pushing on a surface or area is known as _______. Pressure

23 Why does the pressure increase as you go deeper into Earth? The pressure increases as you go deeper inside the earth because amount and weight of the rock increases

24 Figure 4: Comparing & Contrasting – How is the water in the swimming pool similar to Earth’s interior? How is it different? The deeper the water in the pool, the greater the pressure, just as pressure is greater the deeper you go beneath the surface of Earth The water in the pool does not have layers

25 Guide For Reading: What are the main layers of Earth’s surface? The three main layers make up Earth’s interior: The crust The mantle The core Each layer has its own conditions and materials

26 The oceanic crust is made of _____, a dark, dense rock with fine texture. Basalt

27 The continental crust is made of ______, which is made of larger crystals, is less dense and is lighter in color. Granite

28 Figure 5: Comparing & Contrasting- Which rock looks as if it’s made up of one material? of Several materials? The basalt looks like it’s made of one material The granite looks like it’s made of several materials.

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30 Earth’s Magnetic Field

31 Figure 7: Relating Cause & Effect – If you shifted the magnet beneath the paper, what would happen to the iron filings? The iron filings would move with the magnet, again forming the same pattern above the magnet’s new position.

32 What happens in Earth’s interior to produce Earth’s magnetic field? Currents in the liquid outer core force the solid inner core to spin Like a planet within a planet, the inner core spins inside Earth at a slightly faster rate than the rest of the planet

33 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 km 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

34 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

35 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

36 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantle 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

37 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

38 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle 4,000 km 6,000 km

39 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 km 6,000 km

40 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core 6,000 km

41 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 km

42 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 kmInner core

43 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. To see what conditions you would find at various depths on your journey, refer to Exploring Earth’s Interior on pages Complete the table below. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 kmInner core Solid iron & nickel


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