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1 Language Development in Early School Years and Adolescence.

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1 1 Language Development in Early School Years and Adolescence

2 Most of our language acquisition occurs throughout our early toddler and preschool years, but language development definitely continues throughout the lifespan. 2

3 During the school aged years, you will see growth in vocabulary, growth in cognition, growth in syntax and morphology, growth in pragmatics, growth in metalinguistic abilities, and growth and development in reading and writing. 3

4 Language skills in school-aged children and adolescents display for others their level of cognitive development and social development. 4

5 And even through adulthood, we continue to make note of language competence! 5

6 How do we monitor, assess, and observe language skills in school-aged children and in adults? 6

7 Extended Discourse Language Play and Verbal Humor Narratives 7

8 Extended discourse: discussing/conversing/using an extended number of utterances about events, experiences, or phenomena not currently present 8

9 Language play and verbal humor: - use of metalinguistic skills - interactive language play (riddles) - humor (irony and sarcasm) - teasing 9

10 10 Narratives –A series of utterances that relates an event or idea. –A coherent sequence of utterances with a common theme –Stories we tell about things we know.

11 Narratives How do we learn them? How do practice them? family settings, fairy tales, nursery rhymes 11

12 12 Development of Narratives Structure of narratives: 1. Two-event narrative or heap stories –A sequence that involves two actions; generally produced by children under 4 years of age –It consists of labels and descriptions of events –Around 3 years of age the child will include a theme

13 13 Development of Narratives 2. Leap-frog narrative or primitive narratives –A narrative about a single experience that consists of more than two events not presented in logical or chronological order –It is characterized by omission of salient information –Generally produced by 4-year-old children –Usually has 3 elements: people, objects, event

14 14 Development of Narratives Leap-frog narrative –Text organization comes from whatever attracts attention –No story macrostructure –No relationship or organization among elements –The child unsystematically jumps from one event to another

15 15 Example of a Leap-frog Narrative C: I just said, I said, Hi, hello, and how are you? And then, and then, they go to someplace else, and then, and then, I had a party, with, with, with, with, candy and…hmmmm… My, and my, um, I dont know. A: And you what? C: I dont know what I did. I sure had a party!

16 16 Development of Narratives 3. Chronological Narrative or chain narrative –A narrative that is characterized by recounting a sequence of events –Commonly seen between ages four and eight –Begins to involve cause and effect –Begins to involve temporal relationships

17 17 Development of Narratives 4. Classic Narrative or true narrative –A narrative that contains all of the necessary information for a coherent story –Has a theme, characters, and a plot –Constitutes 60% of the narratives of eight and nine year olds –Events build to a high point, are briefly suspended and evaluated, and then resolved

18 18 Example of a Classic Narrative You know Danny Smith? Hes in third grade, you know and when he was doing jumping jacks in the gym, you know, his pants split and in class you know his teacher said, Danny Smith, what are you doing? He said, Im trying to split my pants the rest of the way. It was only this much, and he had this much in class. On the bus he was going like this, you know, splitting it more, and he was showing everybody. We told Danny he was stupid, and he said, No, Im not. You guys are the stupids.

19 Observing the changes in a developing child Cohesion Story art (sparkle) 19

20 20 Four Basic Types of Narrative Discourse (Content of Narratives) 1.Recounts –The speaker talks about a past or personal experience or about an event she has seen or read about. –Are common in the homes of middle-and upper-middle socioeconomic children whose parents often ask the questions, What did you do in school today?, Tell us about your trip to the zoo. –They are commonly used at school.

21 21 Four Basic Types of Narrative Discourse 2. Eventcast –An eventcast is a narrative that describes a future event or something happening now. Tomorrow, well all go to Manuels house after school. He has a big yard, so we can play football, and then Manuels mom can give us some milk and cookies like she always does.

22 22 Four Basic Types of Narrative Discourse 3. Account –An account is a narrative in which a child spontaneously shares her experiences, usually beginning with You know what? –The difference between an account and a recount is that an account is initiated by the child, and a recount is initiated by a request from someone else, usually an adult.

23 23 Four Basic Types of Narrative Discourse 4. Fictionalized narrative –Content variation –Have a known and anticipated pattern or structure –The usual pattern is one in which the main character must overcome some problem or challenge.

24 24 Narratives Across Cultures Topic-centered narrative –Commonly used by European-American children in North America –It is fixed in a given time and place –It has a beginning, a middle, and an ending

25 25 Narratives Across Cultures Topic-associating narrative –Commonly used by African-American children –This narrative shifts in time, place, and key characters –Children put together several anecdotes thematically. –Michaels (1990) reported that teachers see it as rambling, unplanned, skipping from one thing to the next, and as having no point.

26 26 Narratives Across cultures Bilingual Spanish-English Narratives –Vásquez (1989) Story retelling –Main communication event used in the home –Used for entertainment The role of parents was to maintain conversation, rather than to teach or correct their childrens attempts. Latino people place value on participating in discourse more than relaying specific information or describing a series of events.

27 27 Narratives Across Cultures Topic Maintenance –The narrative may include frequent mention and descriptions of family members. –Reference to family members is a means of providing cohesion within the narrative and of specifying time and place. –Outsiders may consider that the topic was not maintained in the narrative because of the tendency to specify family members in lieu of sequencing events.

28 28 Narratives Across Cultures Latino children –Cazden (1987) found that Hispanic childrens narratives about significant personal events often include both their reactions and those of the family members to whom the event was recounted. –Teachers may find this information off the topic.

29 29 Example from 7-year-,5-month- old bilingual boy from El Salvador Interviewer: (Tells brief personal narrative about bee sting) What about you? Have you ever gotten stung by anything? Child: All the time in the brown house when I lived here. Got stung, stung, and stung. Because I was, my room was by the porch and all the bees come in and stung me… I dont know how they get in, but the do somethin how to get in… I woke up and I saw me all stinged. I was all stinged.

30 30 Example from 7-year-,5-month- old bilingual boy from El Salvador Interviewer: You were all stinged. Then what happened. Tell me more about that. Child: Then my brother got stinged. He got, he got a little bit on him and me too. But it didnt hurt when he got all pinched… I scratched it all the time and it growed because it hurts.

31 31 Key points regarding this narrative are: The child was asked to elaborate the story about himself getting stung and chose to tell about his brothers contrastive experience instead. There is no resolution about what was or was not done to medicate the stings. He prefers to speak of a similar experience that happened to his sibling. Sequencing of events is not emphasized here.

32 32 Narratives Across Cultures Asian culture –A preference for combining two or three similar incidents into a single story. –A preference for conciseness. – Omission of pronouns, which listeners are expected to infer. –A valuing of implication rather than explication.

33 33 Example from 7-year-old Chinese boy living in the United States Words in parenthesis were not spoken by the child That is… I was originally very afraid. Then, (I had a) checkup. The dentist filled up my tooth. After filling up, I did not feel painful. But I came the second time. I felt painful here. Then the dentist said that (one tooth) must be pulled out. So he pulled it out. I was afraid. Then he used drugs…Then I was very pained. Pain was gone- he asked me. Then he asked me to rinse the mouth. After rinsing, he pulled it out again. Finally, once more. This time (he) put the tooth in my mouth. Gold Tooth. This one (shows interviewer).

34 34 Some key points about this narrative include: Use of ellipsis (pronouns and nouns are often omitted because listeners can easily infer such information) Several experiences are combined in the narrative Chang (1994) found that about a third of the Chinese children interviewed ended their narratives at the climatic moment. –The high point is clearly the gold tooth he received.

35 35 Example from 4-year-old Japanese girl (Ellipsis is noted by including English items in parentheses) [This child gives a succinct recount of an injury experience.] (I) bled. (I) had (it) cleaned. That was good. (I) was all right.

36 36 Literacy Development

37 37 Emergent Literacy Skills- Childrens understanding about reading and writing before they actually acquire these skills; this understanding is enhanced in households that engage in many reading and writing activities.

38 38 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition Important emergent literacy skills: 1.Semantic knowledge Need to have large and varied vocabulary knowledge base

39 39 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition 2. Environmental print awareness –When children can recognize familiar symbols and demonstrate knowledge that print carries meaning. Familiar logos and signs for fast food restaurants Street signs (STOP, EXIT), movie theater signs, logos on cereal boxes and toys. Familiar words in environmental contexts (e.g. milk, on a milk carton: happy birthday on a greeting card

40 40 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition 3. Conventions of print- are demonstrated when children show that they recognize print conventions and accepted standards or practices for interacting with printed materials. Practice book handling activities that highlight –A. the left-right orientation of English print –B. the front-back directionality of book reading by asking (for example, Show me where I should start reading) –C. Different forms of writing (for example, a letter versus a recipe) –D. Spaces between words by pointing them out and talking about them –E. Punctuation in printed materials

41 41 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition 4. Concepts of phonology and skill in phonological processing –Sound play activities such as: Nursery rhymes Finger plays Chants and television jingles Rhymes for childrens names

42 42 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition 5. Alphabetic/letter knowledge –Learning the alphabetic principle Matching sounds with graphemes –Naming letters, numbers, and frequent words –Using letter blocks, finger painting, or sponge letters to make words –Sorting pictures that begin with the same letter –Making lists of words that begin with the same letter

43 43 Stimulating Literacy Acquisition 6. Sense of story –Can be developed by using Wordless pictures books that provide awareness of story, character, and other plot elements Predictable stories with repetitive themes and rhyme sequences (e.g., Brown Bear, Brown Bear) Familiar daily sequences of events (e.g., Cliffords Birthday Party) Familiar stories and tales

44 44 Reading Components of reading –Letter recognition –Grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules –Word recognition –Semantic knowledge –Comprehension and interpretation

45 45 Reading 1. Letter recognition –Detection of visual features of letters –The child must be able to recognize the important features of letters

46 46 Reading 2. Knowledge of the grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules –Which is the ability to use sound-letter correspondences to decode new words. Graphemes-the actual graphic forms or elements of the writing system.

47 47 Reading –Shallow orthographies A spelling system in which there exists a close relationship (one-to-one) between graphemes and the phonemes they represent (e.g., Italian, Spanish). –Deep orthography A spelling system in which there is a relatively variable relation (e.g., more than one-to-one) between graphemes and phonemes (e.g., English).

48 48 Reading 3. Word recognition –Recognition of string of letters separated by spaces corresponds a conventional word Logographic stage –Children construct associations between spoken words and one or more salient graphic features of the printed word or its surrounding context Transition stage –Children partially use phonetic cues to recognize words, typically the initial letter or the initial and final letters

49 49 Reading Word recognition (cont) Alphabetic stage –This stage is characterized by the ability to use sound- letter correspondences to decode new words Orthographic stage –The child can use letter sequences and spelling patterns to recognize words visually without phonological conversion.

50 50 Reading 4. Semantic knowledge –All of the information a child has for a particular word Grammatical category Phonological production Relations to other words Referents it labels

51 51 Reading 5. Comprehension and interpretation –Requires skills in: Word recognition Vocabulary size Capacity of working memory World knowledge

52 52 Reading Development Expertise in reading evolves slowly. Jean Chall devised a model that describes the stages through which children pass in the reading trajectory. –Pg. 414

53 53 Reading Reading Instruction Approaches –1. Whole language or language experience approach Best described as a philosophy or learning Primary goal, to teach the child to construct meaning from text The use of decoding skills is secondary –2. Reading as decoding Explicitly teach word decoding (sounding out words) Focus is on: naming letters of the alphabet, segmenting, and blending phonemes Goal automatic decoding

54 54 Writing The four benefits to encouraging pre- reading children to experiment w/ writing: 1.Children who spontaneously make writing marks on a page are actively involved in the writing process. 2.By writing what they are saying, children better understand the relationship b/w spoken and written language.

55 55 Writing 3. Children that start writing single letters and letter strings spontaneously are beginning to discover the alphabetic principle. 4. As children read back what they have written, then they are exposed to the close relationship between writing and reading.

56 56 Writing Development of spelling stages 1. Random letters –M t Rfs tWP (I like my new bike) The child knows that writing involves the use of letters, rather than drawings The child shows no awareness of sound/symbol relationships

57 57 Writing II. Semi-phonetic –NOID DUSW (No, I didnt. Did you see one?) –Children attempt to represent phonemes in words with letters, but write down only one or two sounds in words.

58 58 Writing III. Phonetic –My dad wun some Mune He wun 1000 dalrs. –(My dad won some money. He won $1,000 dollars.) –Children break a word into its phonemes and represent the phonemes with letters of the alphabet. They write as it sounds to them.

59 59 Writing IV. Transitional –Egghorn = acorn –Younighted =united –Spellings look like English words, but they are not spelled correctly. Features of standard spellings are used, but incorrectly.

60 60 Writing V. Conventional –Knows conventional spelling for a large number of familiar words –Considers possible alternatives when spelling unfamiliar words

61 61 Writing Genres of Writing 1. Expressive Style- informal personal writing Characterized as thinking out loud Examples- Diary entry Letter to friend

62 62 Writing Genres of Writing 2. Expository writing- organized text with key points and arguments presented clearly, concisely, and logically. -Example- Write a paper about plants found in a rain forest.

63 63 Writing Genres of Writing 3. Narrative Writing-organized chronologically and uses time line as its organizational basis. Example- Write about what you did over summer vacation.

64 64 Bilingualism –The regular use of two or more languages Geographical distribution –True bilingualism is present in practically every country of the world, in all classes of society, and in all age groups.

65 65 Bilingualism Acquisition of another language: 1. Additive bilingualism- Learning a second language while retaining ones original language. –Can happen by: 1. Submersion- Settings in which a second language learner is surrounded by native speakers. 2. Immersion- The learner has no other contact with the target language apart from in classroom situations.

66 66 Bilingualism Acquisition of another language: 2. Subtractive bilingualism- Bilingualism is characterized by the loss of ones original language while learning a second language. –Also known as language loss.

67 67 Bilingualism Acquisition of another language: 3. Simultaneous bilingualism- The development of two languages prior to age three 4. Sequential bilingualism- The acquisition of a second language after age three

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