Presentation on theme: "Ethical Considerations"— Presentation transcript:
1Ethical Considerations Research EthicsEthical Considerations
2What is ‘ethics’? Webster’s collegiate dictionary defines ethics as: ‘the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation’Practical ethicsDeals with personal uncertainties and conflicts of opinionWhat choice should I take?Is this action fair?
3What is ‘ethics’? Theoretical ethics Descriptive ethics If this action is right, what does right really mean?Descriptive ethicsRelate to moral beliefs
4What is ‘ethics’?Ethics insist upon the introduction of the individual human opinions and beliefs – therefore hard to define‘most of our moral responses seem to be more a matter of intuition and feeling than of reasoning and logical deduction – we are not always the rational creatures we would like to be’ (Gross, 1996)
5Research Methods and Ethics We need to consider ethical issues throughout time of researchTo conduct research projects in line with ethical principlesTo follow ethical guidelines
6Questionable practices in social research Robson (1995) notes 10 questionable practices in social research:Involving people without their knowledge or consentCoercing them to participateWithholding information about the true nature of the researchOtherwise deceiving the participant
7Questionable practices in social research 5. Inducing participants to commit acts diminishing their self-esteem6. Violating rights of self-determination (in studies seeking to promote individual change)7. Exposing participant to physical or mental stress8. Invading privacy
8Questionable practices in social research 9. Withholding benefits from some participants (comparison groups)10. Not treating participants fairly, or with respect
9During data collection: Ensure data collected accuratelyAvoid exercising subjective selectivity in what is recordedConsider confidentiality and anonymitySubject to the requirement of legislation, ie. DPA, information obtained during an investigation is confidential (unless otherwise agreed in advance).
10Data Collection‘the ability to explore data or to seek explanations through qualitatively based methods means that there will be greater scope for ethical issues to arise in relation to this approach to research’ (Easterby-Smith et al, 1991)‘embarrassment and even harm could result from reporting data that are clearly attributable to a particular individual’ (Cooper & Schindler, 1988; Robson, 1993)
11Research Ethics Ethical concerns emerge as you plan your research In context of research ‘ethics’ refers to the appropriateness of your behaviour in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of our work, or are affected by it. Wells (1994) defines ethics in terms of a code of behaviour appropriate to academics and the conduct of research.
12Research EthicsEthical issues need to be considered throughout the time of researchRemain sensitive to the impact of your workOn those whom you approachThose who provide access and cooperationThose affected by your results
13Code of ethicsFollowing a code of ethics will provide you with a statement of principles and procedures for the conduct of your researchYou may be required to submit your research proposal to a research ethics committeeYou may need ethical approval to carry out your research
14Meeting Ethical Requirements Students undertaking research within UK’s National Health Service have to meet requirements established by their local NHS Trust’s ethics committeeAny kind of research will inevitably lead to a range of ethical issuesEthical Approval from the Ethics Committee may be required before the start of the research
15Ethical issues that affect research Privacy of possible and actual participantsVoluntary nature of participation and the right to withdraw partially or completely from the processConsent and possible deception of participantsMaintenance of confidentiality of data provided by individuals or identifiable participants and their anonymityReactions of participants to the way in which you seek to collect dataEffects on participants of the way in which you use, analyse and report dataBehaviour and objectivity of the researcher
16PRIVACY Need at all times to respect privacy Nettiquette Developed to provide heading for ‘rules’ or guidelines about how to use the Internet for researchContacting possible participants easierForms of covert observation impinging on rights of participants
17SUMMARYAccess and ethics are critical aspects for the conduct of researchUsing different types and levels of access need to be identifiedFeasibility an important determinant of what you choose to research and how you undertake the researchResearch ethics refer to appropriateness of your behaviourPotential ethical issues should be recognised and considered from outset of researchEthical concerns likely to occur at all stages of researchEthical concerns associated with ‘power relationship’ between the researcher and those who you have access toUse of Internet and to collect data may generate ethical concerns