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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition.

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1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition 6 C H A P T E R REQUIREMENTS DISCOVERY

2 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Chapter Six Requirements Discovery Define system requirements and differentiate between functional and nonfunctional requirements. Understand the activity of problem analysis and be able to create an Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram to aid in problem solving. Understand the concept of requirements management. Identify seven fact-finding techniques and characterize the advantages and disadvantages of each. Understand six guidelines for doing effective listening. Understand what body language and proxemics are, and why a systems analyst should care. Characterize the typical participants in a JRP session and describe their roles. Complete the planning process for a JRP session, including selecting and equipping the location, selecting the participants, and preparing an agenda to guide the JRP session. Describe several benefits of using JRP as a fact-finding technique. Describe a fact-finding strategy that will make the most of your time with end-users. Describe various techniques to document and analyze requirements. Understand use cases and be able to document them.

3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Chapter Map

4 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Introduction to Requirements Discovery Requirements discovery includes those techniques to be used by systems analysts to identify or extract system problems and solution requirements from the user community. Problem analysis is the activity of identifying the problem, understanding the problem (including causes and effects), and understanding any constraints that may limit the solution.

5 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Introduction to Requirements Discovery A system requirement (also called a business requirement) is a description of the needs and desires for an information system. A requirement may describe functions, features (attributes), and constraints.

6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Requirements A functional requirement is a function or feature that must be included in an information system in order to satisfy the business need and be acceptable to the users. A nonfunctional requirement is a description of the features, characteristics, and attributes of the system as well as any constraints that may limit the boundaries of the proposed solution.

7 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Nonfunctional Requirements operate, as well as the type and degree of security that must be provided. · · · · · · · · · · · · · happen? increase profits. What are the budgetary limits? handling (backups, offsite storage, etc.) of the data? Performance Information Control (and Security) Requirement TypeExplanation Performance requirements represent the performance the system is required to exhibit to meet the needs of users. What is the acceptable throughput rate? What is the acceptable response time? Information requirements represent the information that is pertinent to the users in terms of content, timeliness, accuracy, and format. What are the necessary inputs and outputs? When must they What is the required data to be stored? How current must the information be? What are the interfaces to external systems? Economy requirements represent the need for the system to reduce costs or What are the areas of the system where costs must be reduced? How much should costs be reduced or profits be increased? What is the timetable for development? Control requirements represent the environment in which the system must Must access to the system or information be controlled? What are the privacy requirements? Does the criticality of the data necessitate the need for special

8 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirement Type Explanation Efficiency Efficiency requirements represent the systems ability to produce outputs with minimal waste. · Are there duplicate steps in the process that must be eliminated? · Are there ways to reduce waste in the way the system uses it resources? Service Service requirements represent needs in order for the system to be reliable, flexible, and expandable. · Who will use the system and where are they located? · Will there be different types of users? · What are the appropriate human factors? · What training devices and training materials are to be included in the system? · What training devices and training materials are to be developed and maintained separately from the system, such as stand- alone computer based training (CBT) programs or databases? · What are the reliability/availability requirements? · How should the system be packaged and distributed? · What documentation is required? Types of Nonfunctional Requirements (concluded)

9 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirement: Create a means to transport a single individual from home to place of work. Management Interpretation I T Interpretation User Interpretation An Ambiguous Requirements Statement

10 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Results of Incorrect Requirements The system may cost more than projected. The system may be delivered later than promised. The system may not meet the users’ expectations and that dissatisfaction may cause them not to use it. Once in production, the costs of maintaining and enhancing the system may be excessively high. The system may be unreliable and prone to errors and downtime. The reputation of the IT staff on the team is tarnished because any failure, regardless of who is at fault, will be perceived as a mistake by the team.

11 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Relative Cost to Fix an Error Phase in Which FoundCost Ratio Requirements1 Design3-6 Coding10 Development Testing15-40 Acceptance Testing30-70 Operation

12 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Criteria to Define System Requirements Consistent Complete Feasible Required Accurate Traceable Verifiable

13 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition The Process of Requirements Discovery Problem discovery and analysis Requirements discovery Documenting and analyzing requirements Requirements management

14 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Ishikawa Diagram The Ishikawa diagram is a graphical tool used to identify, explore, and depict problems and the causes and effects of those problems. It is often referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram or a fishbone diagram.

15 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirements Discovery Fact-finding is the formal process of using research, interviews, questionnaires, sampling, and other techniques to collect information about problems, requirements, and preferences. It is also called information gathering.

16 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Seven Fact-Finding Methods Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases. Research and site visits. Observation of the work environment. Questionnaires. Interviews. Prototyping. Joint requirements planning (JRP).

17 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Documenting and Analyzing Requirements A requirements definition document should consist of the following. –The functions and services the system should provide. –Nonfunctional requirements including the system’s features, characteristics, and attributes. –The constraints that restrict the development of the system or under which the system must operate. –Information about other systems the system must interface with.

18 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Sample Requirements Definition Outline Requirements Definition Report 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Background 1.3 Scope 1.4 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 1.5 References 2. General Project Description 2.1 System Objectives 3. Requirements and Constraints 3.1 Functional Requirements 3.2 Nonfunctional Requirements 4. Conclusion 4.1 Outstanding Issues Appendix (optional)

19 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Validating Requirements Requirements validation is an activity that checks the requirements definition document for accuracy, completeness, consistency, and conformance to standards.

20 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirements Management Requirements management is the process of managing change to the requirements.

21 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Sampling Sampling is the process of collecting a representative sample of documents, forms, and records. –Determining the sample size: Sample Size = 0.25 x (Certainty factor/Acceptable error)2 –For a 90% certainty: Sample Size = 0.25(1.645/0.10)2 = 68

22 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Sampling Techniques Randomization is a sampling technique characterized as having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data. Stratification is a systematic sampling technique that attempts to reduce the variance of the estimates by spreading out the sampling—for example, choosing documents or records by formula—and by avoiding very high or low estimates.

23 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Observation Observation is a fact-finding technique wherein the systems analyst either participates in or watches a person perform activities to learn about the system. Advantages? Disadvantages? Work sampling is a fact-finding technique that involves a large number of observations taken at random intervals.

24 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Observation Guidelines Determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the observation. Obtain permission from appropriate supervisors or managers. Inform those who will be observed of the purpose of the observation. Keep a low profile. Take notes during or immediately following the observation. Review observation notes with appropriate individuals. Don't interrupt the individuals at work. Don't focus heavily on trivial activities. Don't make assumptions.

25 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Questionnaires Questionnaires are special-purpose documents that allow the analyst to collect information and opinions from respondents. –Advantages? –Disadvantages?

26 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Questionnaires Free-format questionnaires offer the respondent greater latitude in the answer. A question is asked, and the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question. Fixed-format questionnaires contain questions that require selection of predefined responses from individuals.

27 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Fixed-Format Questions Multiple-choice questions Rating questions Ranking questions

28 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Questionnaire Procedure 1.Determine what facts and opinions must be collected and from whom you should get them. 2.Based on the needed facts and opinions, determine whether free- or fixed-format questions will produce the best answers. 3.Write the questions. 4.Test the questions on a small sample of respondents. 5.Duplicate and distribute the questionnaire.

29 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Interviews Interviews are a fact-finding technique whereby the systems analysts collect information from individuals through face-to-face interaction. –Advantages? –Disadvantages?

30 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Interviews Unstructured interviews are conducted with only a general goal or subject in mind and with few, if any, specific questions. The interviewer counts on the interviewee to provide a framework and direct the conversation. In structured interviews the interviewer has a specific set of questions to ask of the interviewee.

31 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Types of Interview Questions Open-ended questions allow the interviewee to respond in any way that seems appropriate. Closed-ended questions restrict answers to either specific choices or short, direct responses.

32 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Procedure to Conduct an Interview 1.Select Interviewees 2.Prepare for the Interview 1.An interview guide is a checklist of specific questions the interviewer will ask the interviewee. 3.Conduct the Interview 4.Follow Up on the Interview

33 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Interview Questions Types of Questions to Avoid –Loaded questions –Leading questions –Biased questions Interview Question Guidelines –Use clear and concise language. –Don’t include your opinion as part of the question. –Avoid long or complex questions. –Avoid threatening questions. –Don’t use “you” when you mean a group of people.

34 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Sample Interview Guide TimeInterviewerInterviewee AllocatedQuestion of ObjectiveResponse 1 to 2 min.Objective Open the interview: Introduce Ourselves Thank Mr. Bentley for his valuable time State the purpose of the interview--to obtain an understanding of the existing credit-checking policies 5 min.Question 1 What conditions determine whether a customer’s order is approvedfor credit? Follow-up 5 min.Question 2 What are the possible decisions or actions that might be taken once these conditions have been evaluated? Follow-up 3 min.Question 3 How are customers notified when credit is not approved for their order? Follow-up Interviewee:Jeff Bentley, Accounts Receivable Manager Date:Tuesday, March, 23, 2000 Time:1:30 P.M. Place:Room 223, Admin. Bldg. Subject:Current Credit-Checking Policy (continued)

35 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition 1 min.Question 4 After a new order is approved for credit and placed in the file containing orders that can be filled, a customer might request that a modification be made to the order. Would the order have to go through credit approval again if the new total order cost exceeds the original cost? Follow-up 1 min.Question 5 Who are the individuals that perform the credit checks? Follow-up 1 to 3 mins.Question 6 May I have permission to talk to those individuals to learn specifically how they carry out the credit-checking process? Follow-up 1 min.Objective Conclude the interview: Thank Mr. Bentley for his cooperation and assure him that he will be receiving a copy of what transpired during the interview 21 minutesTime allotted for base questions and objectives. 9 minutesTime allotted for follow-up questions and redirection 30 minutesTotal time allotted for interview (1:30 p.m. to 2:00 p.m.) General Comments and Notes: Sample Interview Guide (concluded)

36 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Interviewing Do’s and Don’ts Do Be courteous Listen carefully Maintain control Probe Observe mannerisms and nonverbal communication Be patient Keep interviewee at ease Maintain self-control Avoid Continuing an interview unnecessarily. Assuming an answer is finished or leading nowhere. Revealing verbal and nonverbal clues. Using jargon Revealing your personal biases. Talking instead of listening. Assuming anything about the topic and the interviewee. Tape recording -- a sign of poor listening skills.

37 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Communicating With the User Listening - “To hear is to recognize that someone is speaking, to listen is to understand what the speaker wants to communicate.” (Gildersleeve – 1978) Guidelines for Communicating –Approach the Session with a Positive Attitude –Set the Other Person at Ease –Let Them Know You Are Listening –Ask Questions –Don’t Assume Anything –Take Notes

38 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Body Language and Proxemics Body language is all of the nonverbal information being communicated by an individual. Body language is a form of nonverbal communications that we all use and are usually unaware of. Proxemics is the relationship between people and the space around them. Proxemics is a factor in communications that can be controlled by the knowledgeable analyst.

39 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Spatial Zones Intimate zone—closer than 1.5 feet Personal zone—from 1.5 feet to 4 feet Social zone—from 4 feet to 12 feet Public zone—beyond 12 feet

40 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Discovery Prototyping Discovery prototyping is the act of building a small- scale, representative or working model of the users’ requirements in order to discover or verify those requirements. –Advantages? –Disadvantages?

41 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Joint Requirements Planning Joint requirements planning (JRP) is a process whereby highly structured group meetings are conducted for the purpose of analyzing problems and defining requirements. JRP is a subset of a more comprehensive joint application development or JAD technique that encompasses the entire systems development process.

42 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition JRP Participants Sponsor Facilitator Users and Managers Scribes I.T. Staff

43 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Steps to Plan a JRP Session 1.Selecting a location 2.Selecting the participants 3.Preparing the agenda

44 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Typical room layout for JRP session

45 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Guidelines for Conducting a JRP Session Do not unreasonably deviate from the agenda Stay on schedule Ensure that the scribe is able to take notes Avoid the use of technical jargon Apply conflict resolution skills Allow for ample breaks Encourage group consensus Encourage user and management participation without allowing individuals to dominate the session Make sure that attendees abide by the established ground rules for the session

46 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique for generating ideas during group meetings. Participants are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible in a short period of time without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted.

47 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Brainstorming Guidelines Isolate the appropriate people in a place that will be free from distractions and interruptions Make sure that everyone understands the purpose of the meeting Appoint one person to record ideas Remind everyone of the brainstorming rules Within a specified time period, team members call out their ideas as quickly as they can think of them After the group has run out of ideas and all ideas have been recorded, then and only then should the ideas be analyzed and evaluated Refine, combine, and improve the ideas that were generated earlier

48 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Benefits of JRP JRP actively involves users and management in the development project (encouraging them to take “ownership” in the project) JRP reduces the amount of time required to develop systems When JRP incorporates prototyping as a means for confirming requirements and obtaining design approvals, the benefits of prototyping are realized

49 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition A Fact-Finding Strategy 1.Learn all you can from existing documents, forms, reports, and files 2.If appropriate, observe the system in action 3.Given all the facts that you've already collected, design and distribute questionnaires to clear up things you don't fully understand 4.Conduct your interviews (or group work sessions) 5.(Optional). Build discovery prototypes for any functional requirements that are not understood or if requirements need to be validated 6.Follow up

50 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Documenting Requirements Using Use Cases A use case is a behaviorally related sequence of steps (a scenario), both automated and manual for the purpose of completing a single business task. An actor represents anything that needs to interact with the system to exchange information. An actor is a user, a role, which could be an external system as well as a person. A temporal event is a system event that is triggered by time.

51 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Benefits of Using Use Cases Facilitates user involvement. A view of the desired system’s functionality from an external person’s viewpoint. An effective tool for validating requirements. An effective communication tool.

52 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Example of a High-Level Use Case Author: S. ShepardDate: 03/01/200 Use Case Name:New Member Order Actors:Member Description:This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted.

53 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Author: S. ShepardDate: 10/05/200 Use Case Name:Submit New Member Order Actor(s):Member Description:This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. References:MSS-1.0 Typical Course of Events: Example of a Requirements Use Case Actor Action Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member submits an order to be processed Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice. System response Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address is validated against what is currently recorded in member services. Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. 1 2

54 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition AlternateStep 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the Courses:promotion order, update the club member’s record with the new information. Step 3: If Accounts Receivable returns a credit status that the customer is in arrears, send an order rejection notice to the member. Step 4: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting them to submit a valid product number. If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark as “back-ordered.” Pre-condition:Orders can only be submitted by members. Post-condition:Member order has been recorded and the picking ticket has been routed to the warehouse. Assumptions:None at this time. Example of a Requirements Use Case (concluded)

55 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirement Explanation Requirement number: Indicate a unique number or identifier of the requirement Requirement title: Assign short phrase indicating nature of the requirement Requirement text: Provide a textual statement of the requirement Requirement type: Indicate the requirement type Requirement details and constraints Functional characteristics or dimensions Rev date and rev #: Indicate the acceptance date and revision number of current (accepted/baselined) version Criticality Must, Want, or Optional Requirements Tables Requirements traceability is the ability to trace a system function or feature back to the requirement that mandates it.

56 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition Requirement Explanation Requirement number: MSS-1.0 Requirement title: Process New Member Order Requirement text: The system should be able to process new member orders. Within this process it should be able to validate member demographic information, verify credit worthiness, inquire and modify inventory levels based on quantity of product ordered, initiate backorder process in the event of insufficient inventory to fulfill order, and send an order confirmation notice once the order has been placed. Requirement type: Functional Requirement details and constraints Member credit status will be obtained from the Account Receivable system. A picking ticket, containing the available ordered items, must be generated and routed to the warehouse. Rev date and rev#: Version 1.0 Criticality Must Requirement Explanation Requirement number: MSS Requirement title: One Hour Order Confirmation Notice Requirement text: An notice must be generated and sent to the member, within one hour from the time the member placed the order. Requirement type: Performance Requirement details and constraints The member’s address must be stored on the system within the member’s profile. The one- hour constraint applies only to the sending of the notification And not when it’s received by the member. Related requirement(s): MSS-1.0 Rev date and rev #: Version 1.0 Criticality Must Partial List of Member Services System Requirements

57 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Whitten Bentley DittmanSYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS5th Edition System Architect Requirement Example


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