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Systems Analysis Requirements determination Requirements structuring

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Presentation on theme: "Systems Analysis Requirements determination Requirements structuring"— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems Analysis Requirements determination Requirements structuring
Alternative generation & selection

2 Performing Requirements Determination
Gather information on what system should do from many sources Users Reports Forms Procedures

3 Performing Requirements Determination
Characteristics for gathering requirements Impertinence Question everything Impartiality Find the best organizational solution Relaxation of constraints Assume anything is possible Attention to detail Every fact must fit in with every other fact Reframing View the organization in new ways

4 Deliverables and Outcomes
Types of deliverables: Information collected from users Existing documents and files Computer-based information Understanding of organizational components Business objective Information needs Rules of data processing Key events

5 Methods for Determining Requirements
Traditional Modern Radical

6 Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
Individual interviews Discover issues with the current system and needs for the future Questionnaires Observation of workers See how data are handled and what information people need to do their jobs Document Analysis Study business policies and rules

7 Interviews Gather facts, opinions and speculations
Observe body language and emotions Guidelines Plan Checklist Appointment Be neutral Listen Seek a diverse view

8 Interview Questions Open-ended Closed-ended Advantages
-New info can surface -Interviewees are at ease and more involved -Short time commitment -More topics can be covered Disadvantages -Long answers -Difficult to summarize -Useful info maybe ignored if it does not fit choices

9 Questionnaires More cost-effective than interviews
Choosing respondents Should be representative of all users Types of samples Convenient Random sample Purposeful sample Stratified sample

10 Questionnaires Design Mostly closed-ended questions
Can be administered over the phone or in person Can be paper or electronic

11 Direct Observation Serves as a good method to supplement interviews
Often difficult to obtain unbiased data People often work differently when being observed Can observe only a limited amount of time, people and sites

12 Analyzing Documents Types of information to be discovered:
Problems with existing system Opportunity to meet new need Organizational direction Names of key individuals Values of organization Special information processing circumstances Rules for processing data

13 The Appropriate Technique?
Characteristic Interview Questionnaire Observation Document Analysis Information type As-is, improvement, to-be As-is, improvements As-is Information depth High Medium Low Information breadth User Involvement

14 Modern Methods for Determining Requirements
Joint Application Design (JAD) Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key people Conducted off-site Prototyping Repetitive process Rudimentary version of system is built Replaces or augments SDLC Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system

15 Joint Application Design (JAD)
Participants Session Leader (Facilitator) Users & Managers Sponsor Systems Analysts & IS Staff Scribe End Result Documentation detailing existing system Features of proposed system

16 Prototyping Quickly converts requirements to working version of system
Once the user sees requirements converted to system, will ask for modifications or will generate additional requests Most useful when: User requests are not clear Few users are involved in the system Designs are complex and require concrete form History of communication problems between analysts and users Tools are readily available to build prototype

17 Prototyping Drawbacks Tendency to avoid formal documentation
Difficult to adapt to more general user audience Sharing data with other systems is often not considered Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed

18 Radical Methods for Determining Requirements
Business Process Reengineering Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services

19 Analysis Strategies Business Process Automation
Business Process Improvement Business Process Re-engineering

20 BPR Goals Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organization Eliminate unnecessary steps Combine steps Become more responsive to future change

21 Business Process Reengineering
Identification of processes to reengineer Identify key business processes Set of activities designed to produce specific output for a particular customer or market Focused on customers and outcome Same techniques are used as were used for requirements determination Identify specific activities that can be improved through BPR

22 Business Process Reengineering
To identify activities that can be improved through BPR ask: How important is the activity to delivering an outcome? How feasible is changing the activity? How dysfunctional is the activity? Ref: Hammer & Champy (1993) Those activities deemed important, changeable and dysfunctional are candidates for alteration. Dysfunctional activities: Info that is redundantly recorded Excessive inspection Lot of rework

23 Disruptive Technologies
Rule Disruptive Technology Information can only appear in one place at a time Distributed databases Only experts can perform complex work Expert Systems Managers must make all decisions Decision support tools for non-managers Field personnel need offices Wireless data communication & portable computers Personal contact is best Interactive communications Have to find out where things are Automatic identification and tracking

24 Results of Requirements Determination
Structured according to three views of the information system: Process Data flow diagrams Logic Structured English & Decision tables Data Data modeling

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