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Jump to first page Chapter 2 System Analysis - Determining System Requirements.

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Presentation on theme: "Jump to first page Chapter 2 System Analysis - Determining System Requirements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jump to first page Chapter 2 System Analysis - Determining System Requirements

2 Jump to first page Learning Objectives Describe options for designing and conducting interviews and develop a plan for conducting an interview to determine system requirements Design, distribute, and analyze questionnaires to determine system requirements 7.2

3 Jump to first page Learning Objectives Explain advantages and pitfalls of observing workers and analyzing business documents to determine requirements Learn about Joint Application Design (JAD) Use prototyping during requirements determination 7.3

4 Jump to first page Performing Requirements Determination n Gather information on what system should do from many sources u Users u Reports u Forms u Procedures 7.4

5 Jump to first page Deliverables and Outcomes n Types of deliverables: u Information collected from users u Existing documents and files u Computer-based information u Understanding of organizational components F Business objectives F Information needs F Data processing rules F Key events 7.5

6 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Interviewing and Listening u Gather facts, opinions and speculations u Observe body language and emotions u Guidelines F Plan Checklist Appointment F Be neutral F Listen F Seek a diverse view 7.6

7 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Interviewing (Continued) u Interview Questions F Open-Ended No pre-specified answers F Close-Ended Respondent is asked to choose from a set of specified responses u Additional Guidelines F Do not phrase questions in ways that imply a wrong or right answer F Listen very carefully to what is being said F Type up notes within 48 hours F Do not set expectations about the new system 7.7

8 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Administering Questionnaires u More cost-effective than interviews u Choosing respondents F Should be representative of all users F Types of samples Convenient Random sample Purposeful sample Stratified sample 7.8

9 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Questionnaires u Design F Mostly closed-ended questions F Can be administered over the phone or in person u Vs. Interviews F Interviews cost more but yield more information F Questionnaires are more cost-effective 7.9

10 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Interviewing Groups u Advantages F More effective use of time F Enables people to hear opinions of others and to agree or disagree u Disadvantages F Difficulty in scheduling  Nominal Group Technique F Facilitated process to support idea generation by groups F Individuals work alone to generate ideas which are pooled under guidance of a trained facilitator 7.10

11 Jump to first page Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements n Directly Observing Users u Serves as a good method to supplement interviews u Often difficult to obtain unbiased data F People often work differently when being observed 7.11

12 Jump to first page Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents n Types of information to be discovered: u Problems with existing system u Opportunities to meet new needs u Organizational direction u Names of key individuals u Values of organization u Special information processing circumstances u Reasons for current system design u Rules for processing data 7.12

13 Jump to first page Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents n Four types of useful documents u Written work procedures F Describes how a job is performed F Includes data and information used and created in the process of performing the job or task u Business forms F Explicitly indicate data flow in or out of a system u Reports F Enables the analyst to work backwards from the report to the data that generated it u Description of current information system 7.13

14 Jump to first page Modern Methods for Determining Requirements n Joint Application Design (JAD) u Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts u Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key people u Conducted off-site n Prototyping u Repetitive process u Rudimentary version of system is built u Replaces or augments SDLC u Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system 4.14

15 Jump to first page Joint Application Design (JAD) n Participants u Session Leader u Users u Managers u Sponsor u Systems Analysts u Scribe u IS Staff 4.15

16 Jump to first page Joint Application Design (JAD) n End Result u Documentation detailing existing system u Features of proposed system n CASE Tools During JAD u Upper CASE tools are used u Enables analysts to enter system models directly into CASE during the JAD session u Screen designs and prototyping can be done during JAD and shown to users 4.16

17 Jump to first page Joint Application Design (JAD) n Supporting JAD with GSS u Group support systems (GSS) can be used to enable more participation by group members in JAD u Members type their answers into the computer u All members of the group see what other members have been typing 7.17

18 Jump to first page Prototyping n Quickly converts requirements to working version of system n Once the user sees requirements converted to system, will ask for modifications or will generate additional requests n Most useful when: u User requests are not clear u Few users are involved in the system u Designs are complex and require concrete form u History of communication problems between analysts and users u Tools are readily available to build prototypes 7.18

19 Jump to first page Prototyping n Drawbacks u Tendency to avoid formal documentation u Difficult to adapt to more general user audience u Sharing data with other systems is often not considered u Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed 7.19

20 Jump to first page Summary-Traditional Methods n Interviews u Open-ended and close-ended questions u Preparation is key n Questionnaires u Must be carefully designed u Can contain close-ended as well as open- ended questions 7.20

21 Jump to first page Summary-Traditional Methods n Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents u Written work procedures u Business forms u Reports u Description of current information system n Directly Observing Users u A good method to supplement interviews 7.21

22 Jump to first page Summary-Modern Methods n Joint Application Design (JAD) u Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts u Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key people n Prototyping u Simplified version of system is built u Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system 7.22


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