2 Introduction These web-based training modules are intended to assist families and professionals in accessing important information about supporting individuals with problem behavior. The modules take about 1-1.5 hours to complete and can be accessed from any computer with internet capability. Note on module: Working Draft - Not to be downloaded, copied, or disseminated in any manner without the express permission of Florida's PBS Project and DOE/BEES. If you have any difficulty accessing the website please contact firstname.lastname@example.org@fmhi.usf.edu for more assistance. We hope that you will find the information in these modules useful and accessible.
3 Introduction Objectives: By completing this initial training module in Collaborative Teaming and Person-Centered Planning, team members will be able to identify the following: Steps of Florida's PBS process Common Characteristics of PBS Different roles on the support team Steps of the person-centered planning (PCP) process Themes, goals, and action steps of a PCP Process Ways to plan effective PCP meetings
4 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Training Modules This is the first of four PBS training modules. 1. Collaborative Teaming and Person-Centered Planning The other modules should be taken in the following order: 2. Functional Behavior Assessment 3. Instructional Issues and Strategies 4. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating PBS Plans These modules are designed to support a team as they go through a Positive Behavior Support process with a child or adult with problem behaviors. Let's begin with the first module by reviewing the goal of Florida's PBS Project and the definition of Positive Behavior Support.
5 The PBS Process
6 Florida’s PBS Project The goal of Florida’s PBS Project is to provide families and agencies with training, support, and technical assistance These activities help support children or adults with problem behavior as they learn more appropriate behaviors and attain important quality of life goals through a person-centered, collaborative teaming approach
7 Training Format Florida's PBS Project is available to provide training and technical assistance activities to the teams and participants at each training site. Training and technical assistance activities will include the following: A series of four 1 hour overviews of critical issues and activities involved in the PBS approach accessible by the web or in person Preparation of the team to better understand and participate in the critical PBS technical assistance activities A series of team meetings to plan and implement the critical activities in a PBS approach
8 What is Positive Behavior Support? A values-based, empirically valid approach for resolving problem behaviors and helping people lead enhanced lifestyles A collaborative team approach that results in an individualized support plan A new applied science of behavior change
9 Characteristics Positive Behavior Support may differ significantly from other approaches to addressing problem behavior. These differences are considerable and may include the following: PBS is assessment-based. Interventions are directly linked to environmental influences and a hypothesis concerning the function of the problem behavior PBS produces comprehensive plans, usually involving multiple interventions PBS is proactive, teaching alternative skills and adapting the environment PBS emphasizes lifestyle enhancement and inclusive settings as both the context for and long-range goals of intervention PBS reflects person-centered values that honor the dignity and preferences of the individual PBS is designed for use in everyday settings using typically available resources PBS takes a broad view of intervention success that includes –increases in the use of alternative skills, –Decreases in the incidence of challenging behavior, and –Improvements in quality of life
10 Founding Values The characteristics of positive behavior support that distinguish it from more traditional methods of addressing problem behavior are a direct result of the following underlying values and philosophies: People are individuals and the supports they receive should be individualized People are members of families so families should be supported as consistent and important aspects of the lives of adults and children Social relationships reflect the quality of a person’s life. Friends, family members, peer groups, coworkers, fellow students and other relationships form the background for personal growth and development
11 Founding Values Self-determination is important to people. Expressing choices and preferences in the big and small life choices is important People are members of natural communities of support that play a significant role throughout the person’s lifespan People have the right to be treated with dignity and understanding. The behavior supports provided to individuals should be positive, effective, and free of any components that do not treat the person with dignity or are not based on a clear understanding of the person’s behavior
12 Developing a PBS Team
13 Developing a Positive Behavior Support Team Now that you have a better idea of Positive Behavior Support and Florida's PBS Project, you’re ready to begin developing a support team.
Puzzle Activity Take only a minute and look at the puzzle below. Count the number of squares you are able to find in one minute. After one minute go on to the next frame.
Puzzle Activity How many squares were you able to find (select the ONE best answer)? Multiple Choice: a. between 30-40 d. between 60-70 b. between 40-50 e. more than 70 c. between 50-60
Puzzle Activity Actually, there are more than 70 different squares! Don’t worry if you didn’t find that many. Most people can’t find that many, especially when they work alone. However, when they work with others in a team they are often able to find many more squares than they saw on their own.
17 Advantages of Teams Working as part of a team has several advantages when supporting an individual with problem behavior. Often the behaviors are frustrating and difficult to understand. A team approach enhances information that may reduce frustration and understanding of the person’s behavior. Working alone, a parent or professional may not see the "big picture" or can miss critical information of which they may be unaware. A team approach encourages an integration of information from various perspectives.
18 Behavior Support Teams Your behavior support team will have the job of: Gathering information, Developing a hypothesis, Creating a support plan, and Implementing interventions. Therefore it is important that you have representatives on the team that meet the following characteristics: Members from all environments in which the focus individual interacts, People who know the focus individual well and have a vested interest, People who know supports and resources, (and methods of accessing them) as well as potential barriers, and Members to allocate personnel and fiscal resources. If your team is missing a critical member (parent, teacher, etc.), it is unlikely that you will be successful in achieving significant quality of life outcomes for the individual.
19 Principles of Collaboration Before your team begins to work together they should be aware that there are some principles of collaboration that will impact their success as a team. These include the following: Mutual trust and respect Shared goals and objectives Open communication Effective conflict resolution Tran disciplinary process Equity of task distribution Consensus decision-making Ongoing problem-solving *See supplemental handout to read more about these principles.
20 Person Centered- Planning
21 Making Person-Centered Plans Once you have your support team established, it’s time to act on the values-base of Positive Behavior Support with some specific actions. The next section of the course will review some specific tools your team can use.
22 The Philosophy Person-Centered Planning is built on a philosophy that does the following: Takes a capacity-based perspective of the individual Uses natural resources to fulfill a vision Builds a circle of support for the individual that includes friends, family, and service providers
23 What is Person-Centered Planning? Person-Centered Planning is a way for diverse people, who share a common need to align their : Vision, purposes, and goals; Understanding of the focus person’s past, present and future life; and, Actions for change, mutual support, personal and team development, and learning. Person-Centered Planning is, first and foremost, a planning process. But PCP can also be seen as an assessment tool, in that it evaluates where the person has been, what their environment is like now, and where they would like to go in the future.
24 What is Person-Centered Planning? PCP can also be an intervention. Frequently the process of PCP identifies for participants areas where their behavior needs to change to better meet the needs of the individual. As a result of the process, the participants informally change their behavior (intervention) and the individual's behavior subsequently changes, too. PCP also has the ability to motivate the team because they see things differently, come to a common vision, and feel supported in making necessary changes. As a result, PCP has the potential to create and build a strong and effective team dedicated to supporting the individual with problem behavior, as well as each other.
25 What Person-Centered Planning is NOT : An easy, one-shot process The answer to all problems A replacement for an IEP A quick fix solution to complex human and/or organizational problems Something to be done and forgotten A guarantee PCP starts a process that requires commitment and effort over a substantial period of time. Make certain that your team is willing to commit time to a process that may take several months and 6-10 meetings to complete.
26 Activity 2 One of the central activities of the PCP process is to identify the individual and family’s goals for their future. This may seem like a simple activity. It may be harder than you had anticipated! Take a few minutes to think about your goals for the future. Don’t move on to the next screen until you have REALLY thought about what you would like to be and do in the next few years.
27 Activity 2 So, how hard was it to think about your own future? Sometimes it is hard for people to think past today. Sometimes they have had little time to experience and plan for the future. And, sometimes discussions about the future are emotionally charged. For instance? How do parents of a kindergarten-aged child with autism communicate that their goal is to have their daughter in a general education setting this year? How does an 18 year-old young adult tell his family for the first time that he would like to live in his own apartment? Person-Centered Planning may address challenging and important issues, but may also require a supportive and safe environment for all participants to share their hopes and fears for the future.
28 Why is Person-Centered Planning so important to your team? Sometimes a support team begins to focus on the person’s behavior and loses sight of the person/family and their goals for the future. The PCP process retains the focus on the person and sets the stage for “the team” to be the driving force in pursuing the person’s dream for the future. PCP also looks at the person’s entire environment and how it impacts every aspect of their life. When the team takes time to understand the person and their life better, they are likely to develop support plans that fit the person’s life and are more effective. When you understand the context of a person’s life, it is much easier to develop an array of effective supports for them. Finally, PCP has the capacity to change the perceptions and motivations of participants. They can get excited about the future and collaborating with the team.
29 Five Essential Goals of Person-Centered Planning The following five essential goals are central to the development of a future vision for the adult or child: Being present and participating in community life Gaining and maintaining satisfying relationships Expressing preferences and making choices in everyday life Having opportunities to fulfill respected roles and live in dignity Continuing to develop personal competencies
30 Team Members Talk About the Process Team members at Person-Centered Planning meetings have terrific things to say about the process. The following are comments from a parent, teachers, and aides regarding their participation in a Person- Centered Planning process for a young man with autism. Parent on Collaboration - “We were already a team before we began the PBS process. We were a good team and we worked well together because we went through the Person-Centered Planning process before PBS.
31 Team Members Talk About the Process On Person-Centered Planning: “Without Person-Centered Planning, the team is not able to think about the person holistically. Instead they become focused on the behaviors and this limits their ability to make the focus person’s needs a priority.” “Without Person-Centered Planning, I never would have agreed to PBS because I wouldn’t have thought it would work.” “It (Person-Centered Planning) helped us become a team. PBS challenges everyone involved to think about themselves critically related to how they interact with Mark. You need to trust everybody on your team to open yourself up at that level.” “Person-Centered Planning is about believing in someone. You come out of it with a better understanding for what the person wants, how you can help them get it, and then believing that they can achieve it.”
32 Different Approaches here are at least six or more techniques for conducting a Person- centered Planning process. The most common approaches that you are likely to encounter include: Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hopes (PATH) Takes about 3 hours, Team should have some idea of goals, Team is cohesive and knows the focus person Making Action Plans (MAP) Takes about 1-2 hours, Team should have well-formed goals, a cohesive team knows the focus person
33 Different Approaches Personal Profiling and Futures Planning Takes more time. Team does not know focus person well. Comprehensive. For the Positive Behavior Support Demonstration Project, we will be facilitating a unique Person-Centered Planning process that shares some features with each of the above approaches. A sample of this process will be introduced in the next few frames.
34 A Sample Person-Centered Plan Britney
Sample Organizational Chart The above chart describes the types of information (dreams, goals, etc.) that we will gather and the sequence of activities to gather that information (1-13 steps). Although a skilled facilitator will assist a team to go through this process in 1-2 hours, you will have an opportunity to review Britney’s plan as you prepare for your own PCP process with your team.
36 Activity 4 Take a few minutes and review the frames from Britney’s PCP. Think about the main themes or issues that were identified in the process. See if you can list 3-5 important themes for Britney’s team to address. You may want to print a copy of the frames to assist you in answering some questions about the sample frames.
37 Britney’s Person-Centered Plan
With this frame we want to help the person identify their dream for the future, including all the ideas, values, people and things that are important to them. List anything that is important for the person to realize the kind of life they desire. D R E A M THE Have friends Communicate her wants and needs Be independent Sleep over her friend’s house Stay involved with her dance group Attend a friend’s birthday party Have fun!!! Go to college Stay included Stay on grade level Join girl scouts Live a healthy life Stay involved with the church
Hopes Fears Identify the hopes and fears you have for this individual. Under “Hopes” list what is possible if we do the best we can. Under “Fears” list what is possible if things do not improve or get worse. Joins girl scouts Attend a community recreational (summer) program Communicate with others Understood by others Always successful!! Not understood by other people Doesn’t have the appropriate social skills Not accepted by children her own age Never has a friend Behaviors get worse and she gets kicked out of dance class and/or church Behaviors get worse and her placement gets changed Classroom work will continue to frustrate her and she will not be successful
PEOPLE Friends Family Community List the people who are present in the person’s life. Place their name in the appropriate section of the circle. Place the name of individuals who are closest to the person in or near the inner circle. Agency Grandparents Aunt and uncle Mother Father Gracie Mary Outside Speech Therapy Outside Occupational therapy Teacher Classroom assistant Up with Downs Group Ballet teacher Church group Neighbors Mom and dads friends – Nicole and Bill Mrs. Jones – Church Jessica – little girl from Ballet class
P L A C E S Indicate activities in which the individual participates in the school. Indicate activities in which the individual participates in the home. Indicate places in the community that the individual participates on a consistent basis. List only 4-5 primary activities in each setting. SchoolHome Community Participates in regular classroom activities Enjoys being on the playground with other kids Speech and OT Music Library PE Sunday school Ballet class Church McDonalds Plays outside on the swing set with her sisters Swims with her sisters Watches Barney movies Eats dinner as a family
Medicines HEALTH Describe the individuals health by listing any positive or negative conditions. Indicate any medications the individual is currently taking. Hearing loss due to middle ear infection Fine motor difficulties None at this time Good appetite Good vision Appropriate activity level for age
HISTORY Born: Today Indicate some of the critical events that occurred in the person’s life from birth until today. Put a “*” next to any positive events. Put a “-” next to any negative events. Younger sister was born. They have a good relationship. Britney Born 6/23/93 and diagnosed with Downs Syndrome Middle ear infection – hearing loss detected Began Speech Therapy Started Preschool. It was a great experience Began Kindergarten – school became concerned about behaviors In 1 st grade working with PBS project
PersonalAcademic What choices can the individual make within his/her personal and academic life? Identify what choices are presented to the individual within both areas. Choices Snack Breakfast Clothes Toys to play with Movies Books to read Centers Food during lunch
Respect ! Gains Loses List any behaviors or characteristics of the person that cause him/her to gain or lose respect or his/her peers or adults. Under “Gains” list those things you really like about the person. Under “Loses” list those behaviors that you do not like to see. Smart Sense of humor Friendly Reads words Good memory Hits others Throws her alpha smart Throws herself on the floor Runs around the classroom Doesn’t listen at times
What strategies work well for the individual? What strategies have not been as successful or cause the challenging behavior to increase? What Works!!! What Doesn’t Work!!! Positive praise Star system Going to the library Chocolate ComputerListening to music Going outsideBarney Toys Helper at home or in the classroom TicklesRub her back Yelling Paper and pencil task Anything that has to do with MATH Time-out Loud places Stern voices Scolding her and pointing your finger at her while you’re screaming
What are some barriers and opportunities for this individual and his/her team? Opportunities Barriers Communication barrier between the team IEP goals are unrealistic Teacher has a difficult time communicating to family that Britney is frustrated with class work Family wants Britney to do the same things (work, activities) as the other children with NO modifications Supportive school-based team Administrator and school believe in INCLUSION Currently in an inclusive setting Family is very supportive Family follows through with homework, extra activities, practices with Britney, etc.. Team has committed to the PBS process Team has Britney’s best interest at heart
Identify any patterns or themes you found throughout this process. List at least one main point from each of the other frames that you want to share with the team. Themes Communication Difficult to understand at times Hard time communicating to others Expand communication Peers No friends Doesn’t seek attention from her peers Curriculum Too hard for Britney Frustrated Not successful Needs one-on- one assistance
List the goals that you would like to see achieved one year from today. Think about what might be possible if everyone tries their hardest. Consider any outcome as long as it is POSSIBLE and POSITIVE. Goals 1.Express frustration appropriately 2.Revise IEP goals and discuss transitions for next school year 3.Increase independence (academic seat work, lunch time, large group time) 4.Have a friend at school 5.Hearing (ear) problems would be resolved – live a healthy life 6.Move on to second grade with peers in an inclusive setting
First Steps What actions can be taken immediately? These steps can be small 1.Do a Functional Assessment to identify why and when she is getting frustrated 2.Plan a meeting with appropriate team members to address IEP goals 3.Implement peer buddy system in class in order to decrease the reliance on the assistant 4.Identify someone in her class that she likes to be with 5.Get ears rechecked by the ENT
51 Themes Listed Themes The completed THEMES frame identifies three major themes the team identified for Britney and several sub themes, including: Communication: Difficult to understand at times Hard time communicating with others Need to expand communication Peers: No friends Doesn’t seek attention from peers
52 Themes Curriculum: Too hard for Britney Frustrated Not successful Needs one-on-one assistance These themes and issues served as the foundation for the short and long-term goals the group identified for Britney.
53 Activity 5 Take a few minutes and think about some possible goals for Britney. These might be broader goals that might be achieved in ONE year. Think about what might be possible if everyone on the team does their very best. Consider any outcome as long as it is POSSIBLE and POSITIVE. If you did not print a copy of the frames return to slides 38-50. Move on to the next frame after you have thought of at least 2-3 goals for Britney.
54 Activity 5 Did any of the goals you selected include: 1. Express frustration appropriately 2. Move on to second grade with peers in an inclusive setting 3. Increase independence (academic seat work, lunch time, large group time) 4. Have a friend at school 5. Hearing (ear) problems would be resolved ? live a healthy life? If you developed any of the above goals: Great! You are beginning to understand how the process works to help identify important goals that the team will work on in the future. If you did not have any of the above goals: These are goals identified by Britney’s team. You might still have identified other important goals. To determine whether the goal you identified is important, check whether it is mentioned several times during the process or addresses one of the main themes
Listed Goals Britney's Team listed the following goals to address in the next six months: 1. Express frustration appropriately. 2. Revise IEP goals and discuss transitions for next school year. 3. Increase independence (academic seat work, lunch time, large group time). 4. Have a friend at school. 5. Hearing (ear) problems would be resolved ? live a healthy life. 6. Move on to second grade with peers in an inclusive setting. These are not the only goals that could be identified from the PCP process. However, these are the goals that Britney's team could come to a consensus on addressing in the next several months.
56 Activity 6 Now think about 2-3 action steps that can be taken in the next 48 hours to begin work on the goals you identified. These steps may be small and can be initiated or completed by a team member. If you did not print a copy of the frames return to slides 38-50. Move on to the next frame after you have thought of at least 2-3 goals for Britney.
57 Activity 6 Did any of the first steps you selected include: 1.Starting a functional assessment to identify why and when Britney is getting frustrated 2.Planning a meeting to revise IEP goals and discuss transitions for next school year 3.Implementing a peer buddy system in class in order to decrease the reliance on the 4.assistant 5.Identifying someone in her class that she likes to be with 6.Scheduling to get ears rechecked by the ENT? If you developed any of the above: Great! You understand how the process works to help identify first steps that the team can start to work on in the next few days. If you did not have any of the above: These first steps were identified by Britney’s team. You might still have identified other first steps. To determine whether the first step you identified is important, check to make certain that it matches one of the Goals the team identified.
First Steps Based on the overall goals, Britney's team decided to initiate the following activities in the next 48 hours. 1.Do a Functional Assessment to identify why and when she is getting frustrated. 2.Plan a meeting with appropriate team members to address IEP goals. 3.Implement peer buddy system in class in order to decrease the reliance on the assistant. 4.Identify someone in her class that she likes to be with. 5.Get ears rechecked by the ENT. There are certainly other first steps that could meet the identified goals, but these made sense to the team. Although each goal may not have a first step that has to be completed in the next 48 hours, there are at least 3-5 activities that the team can get started on immediately.
59 Application Activity 1. Each team member should review and complete the blank Person-Centered Planning form. The blank forms are the last slides of this Power Point. 2. Team members should identify frames that are essential for discussion at the Person-Centered Planning meeting. 3. Identify at least two possible dates for your PCP meeting. 4. Communicate the agreed PCP meeting date to all team members.
Person-Centered Plan: Sample Organizational Chart First Steps Goals Dream PeopleHealthChoicesStrategiesBarriers and Supports PlacesHistoryRespectHopes and Fears Themes
With this frame we want to help the person identify their dream for the future, including all the ideas, values, people and things that are important to them. List anything that is important for the person to realize the kind of life they desire. D R E A M THE
PEOPLE Friends Family Community List the people who are present in the person’s life. Place their name in the appropriate section of the circle. Place the name of individuals who are closest to the person in or near the inner circle. Agency
P L A C E S Indicate activities in which the individual participates in the school. Indicate activities in which the individual participates in the home. Indicate places in the community that the individual participates on a consistent basis. List only 4-5 primary activities in each setting. SchoolHome Community
Medicines HEALTH Describe the individuals health by listing any positive or negative conditions. Indicate any medications the individual is currently taking.
HISTORY Born: Today Indicate some of the critical events that occurred in the person’s life from birth until today. Put a “*” next to any positive events. Put a “-” next to any negative events.
PersonalAcademic What choices can the individual make within his personal and academic life? Identify what choices are presented to the individual within both areas. Choices
Respect ! Gains Loses List any behaviors or characteristics of the person that cause him/her to gain or lose respect or his/her peers or adults. Under “Gains” list those things you really like about the person. Under “Loses” list those behaviors that you do not like to see.
What strategies work well for the individual? What strategies have not been as successful or cause the challenging behavior to increase? What Works!!! What Doesn’t Work!!!
Hopes Fears Identify the hopes and fears you have for this individual. Under “Hopes” list what is possible if we do the best we can. Under “Fears” list what is possible if things do not improve or get worse.
What are some barriers and opportunities for this individual and his/her team? Opportunities Barriers
Identify any patterns or themes you found throughout this process. List at least one main point from each of the other frames that you want to share with the team. Themes
List the goals that you would like to see achieved one year from today. Think about what might be possible if everyone tries their hardest. Consider any outcome as long as it is POSSIBLE and POSITIVE. Goals
First Steps What actions can be taken immediately? These steps can be small
74 End of Module 1. Please move onto Module 2: Functional Behavior Assessment