2 Subpart H Standards 1910.101 Compressed Gases 1910.102 Acetylene HydrogenOxygenNitrous OxideFlammable and Combustible Liquids
3 Subpart H StandardsSpray Finishing using Flammable and Combustible MaterialsDip Tanks containing Flammable and Combustible LiquidsExplosives and Blasting Agents
4 Subpart H StandardsStorage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum GasesStorage and Handling of Anhydrous AmmoniaProcess Safety Management of Highly Hazardous ChemicalsHazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
5 Subpart H StandardsDipping and coating operations: Coverage and DefinitionsGeneral Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations
6 Subpart H StandardsAdditional Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations that use Flammable or Combustible LiquidsAdditional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations
7 Definitions Hazardous Chemical Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place
8 Definition Highly Hazardous Chemical OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would posses toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive properties
10 DefinitionsAerosolAerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure
11 DefinitionsApprovedApproved shall mean an approved or listed by a national recognized testing laboratorySuch as:Underwriters Laboratories (UL) orFactory Mutual (FM)
12 Definitions Boiling Point Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). The pressure is equivalent to 760 millimeters of mercury (760 mm Hg)Liquid changes into a vapor
13 Definitions Boiling Point At temperatures above the boiling, the pressure of the atmosphere can no longer hold the liquid in the liquid state and bubbles begin to form.The lower the boiling point, the greater the vapor pressure at normal ambient temperatures and consequently the greater the risk.
14 DefinitionsContainerContainer shall mean any can, barrel, or drum
15 Definitions Closed Container Closed container shall mean a container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid or vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures
16 DefinitionsFire AreaFire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
17 Definitions Flash Point Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.
18 Definitions Combustible Liquid Combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at above 100°F (37.8 °C).Combustible liquids are divided into two classes:Class IIClass III
19 Definitions Class II Liquids Class II liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)
20 Definitions Class III Liquids Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C).Class III are divided into two classes:Class IIIAClass IIIB
21 Definitions Class IIIA Liquids Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C)
22 Definitions Class IIIB Liquids Class IIIB liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 200°F (93.3°C).This section does not regulate Class IIIB liquids.
23 DefinitionsNOTE:When a combustible liquid is heated to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flash point, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids
24 Definitions Flammable Liquid Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C)Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids
25 Definitions Class I liquids are divided into three classes: Class 1A Class 1BClass 1C
26 DefinitionsClass 1AClass 1A shall include liquids having flash points below 73 °F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point below 100 °F (37.8°C)Examples: Ethyl Ether, Isopropyl Chloride, Pentane
27 Definitions Class 1B Liquids Class 1B shall include liquids having flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C)Example: Acetone, Gasoline, Toluene
28 DefinitionsClass 1CClass 1C shall include liquids having flash points at at or above 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C)Examples: Amyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Xylene
29 Flash Point IIIA II IC IA IB Boiling Point 200°F Combustible FlammableFlash Point< 100°F73°FIAIB100°FBoiling Point
30 Definitions Portable Tank Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation
31 Definitions Safety Can Safety can means an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subject to fire exposure
32 Definitions Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products by ASTM
33 Definitions Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure is a measure of a liquid’s propensity to evaporate.The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the liquid and, thus, the more readily the liquid gives off vapors
34 Flammable (Explosive) Limits Flammable RangeThe range of a combustible vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits.Also, known as the “explosive range.”
35 Flammable (Explosive) Limits Lower Flammable LimitThe lowest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture.Below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flame.Also, known as “Lower Explosive Limit or LEL.”
36 Flammable (Explosive) Limits Upper Flammable LimitThe highest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture.Above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flame. Better known as “too rich” to burn.Also, known as “Upper Explosive Limit or UEL.”
37 Flammable (Explosive) Limits Hazardous Material LFL UFLButaneEthylene OxideGasolineHydrogenIsopropyl AlcoholPropane
38 Flammable and Combustible Liquids This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour General Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience.This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
39 IntroductionThe two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fireSafe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards29 CFR
40 Classes of Some Flammable Liquids Common Name Flash Point (oF)CLASS IACLASS IBCLASS ICEthyl Ether -49Gasoline -45Methyl Ethyl Ketone 21Toluene 40XyleneTurpentine 95Other common flammable and combustible liquids and their flash points are shown below:Flash Point (oF)CLASS IA Pentane < -40CLASS IB Acetone 0VM&P Naptha (Typical)Ethyl Alcohol 55CLASS IC Mineral SpiritsCLASS II Fuel OilsKeroseneCLASS III Ethylene Glycol 232
41 Program Components Control of ignition sources Proper storage A good plan for safe use of flammable and combustible liquids contains at least these components:Control of ignition sourcesProper storageFire controlSafe handling
42 Sources of Ignition Open flames Smoking Static electricity Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include:Open flamesSmokingStatic electricityCutting and weldingHot surfacesElectrical and mechanical sparksLightning(e)(6)(i)
43 Static ElectricityGenerated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tankMain hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vaporsBonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a sparkStatic electricity can be generated by the contact and separation of dissimilar materials. For example: belts and pulleys, tires and the road, fluid flow through a pipe, agitation and mixing of fluids, and splash filling of flammable liquids.For more information, see NFPA 77, Static Electricity.One of the primary means of reducing the hazard of static electricity when transferring flammable liquids into/from containers is through the use of bonding and grounding, which is discussed in this program.
44 Industrial Plants – Grounding Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected
45 BondingPhysically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between themMust provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present(e)(6)(ii)Both objects bonded share the same charge and have no potential difference, BUT there still is a potential difference between the conductive objects and ground. Thus, there is danger of a spark from one of the conductive objects to grounded objects.
46 GroundingEliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and groundAlthough bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire(e)(6)(i)Both objects bonded and grounded permit charge to flow to ground.
47 VentilationAlways provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors.(a)(31)Ventilation for the prevention of fire and explosion is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.For additional information on ventilation, see OSHA’s web site at:
48 Storage FundamentalsIdentify incompatible chemicals – check the Material Safety Data SheetIsolate and separate incompatible materialsIsolate by storing in another area or roomDegree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packagingSeparate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other
49 Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of peopleIn office occupancies:Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipmentStorage must be in:closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, orsafety cans, oran inside storage roomInside storage room(d)(5)(i) and (iii)In office occupancies, the inside storage room must not have a door that opens into that portion of the building used by the public.
50 Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer Approved container of not more than 5 gallons capacitySpring-closing lid and spout coverSafely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire(a)(29)
51 Flame Arrester Screen Prevents fire flashback into can contents Double wire-mesh constructionLarge surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point
52 Storage CabinetsNot more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinetMust be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away”Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet(d)(3)(i) and (ii) and (ii)(a)Three-point lock on metal cabinet doors prevents buckling, which would expose contents to fire.Raised door sill contains leaks.
53 Fire ControlSuitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where flammable or combustible liquids are storedOpen flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areasMaterials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids(d)(7)(i) and (iii) and (iv)
54 Transferring Flammable Liquids Since there is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled, OSHA allows only four methods for transferring these materials:Through a closed piping systemFrom safety cansBy gravity through an approved self-closing safety faucetBy means of a safety pump(e)(2)(iv)(d)Transferring of flammable liquids by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks is prohibited.
55 Self-Closing Safety Faucet Bonding wire between drum and containerGrounding wire between drum and groundSafety vent in drum
56 Safety Pump Faster and safer than using a faucet Spills less likely No separate safety vents in drum requiredInstalled directly in drum bung openingSome pump hoses have integral bonding wires
57 Waste and ResidueCombustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.(e)(9)(iii)Waste drum with disposal funnelSafety disposal canOily-waste can (self-closing lid)
58 Container and Portable Tank Storage This section applies only to the storage of flammable and combustible liquids in drums or other containers not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and portable tanks of less than 660 gallons individual capacity.
59 Container and Portable Tank Storage Only approved containers and portable tanks may be used to store flammable and combustible liquidsMetal containers and portable tanks must meet DOT requirements
60 Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gallons of Class I and/ or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gallons of Class III liquids may be stored in an individual cabinet
61 Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets The standard permits both metal and wooden storage cabinetsCabinets shall be designed and constructed to limit internal temperatures to not more than 325°F when subject to a standardized 10-minute fire test
62 Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets The bottom, top, door, and sides of metal cabinets shall be at least 18 gauge sheet metal and double walled with a 1 ½ -inch air spaceThe door shall be provided with a three point lock and the door sill shall be raised at least 2-inches above the bottom of the cabinet
63 Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms Construction is to comply with test specifications outlined in NFPA 251Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with non-combustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4-inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4-inches below the surrounding floor
64 Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms Opening shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doorsThe room shall be liquid tight where the floor joins the floorElectrical wiring for Class I liquids will comply with Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations
65 Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms In each storage room, an aisle of at least feet in width will be maintainedContainers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stackedContainers will be at least 3 feet from sprinkler heads
66 Fire ControlAt least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage.
67 Maximum QuantitiesThe quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed:25 gallons of Class IA liquids in containers120 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in containers660 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in a single portable tank.
68 Service StationsNo smoking or open flames in areas used for fueling, servicing fuel, etc.Conspicuous signs must be posted.
69 Liquid TransferIf gravity transfer is used, must be through an approved self-closing valve.Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.
70 Handling LiquidsFlammable liquids shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.
71 HousekeepingCombustible waste and residue shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles, and disposed of daily
72 Safe Handling Fundamentals Carefully read the manufacturer’s label on the flammable liquid container before storing or using itPractice good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areasClean up spills immediately, then place the cleanup rags in a covered metal containerOnly use approved metal safety containers or original manufacturer’s container to store flammable liquidsKeep the containers closed when not in use and store away from exits or passagewaysUse flammable liquids only where there is plenty of ventilationKeep flammable liquids away from ignition sources such as open flames, sparks, smoking, cutting, welding, etc.Spills or LeaksFirst, eliminate all sources of ignition, thenStop the leak, if possibleContain the materialIsolate the areaAvoid direct contact with the materialUse appropriate fire control procedures
73 SummaryThe two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fireSafe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standardsAn excellent reference on this topic is National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
75 Definitions Aerated Solid Powders Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operation
76 Definitions Spraying Area Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.
77 Definitions Spray Booth A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system
78 Definitions Waterwash spray booth A spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishing material
79 Definitions Dry spray booth A spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.
80 Definitions Dry spray booth A dry spray booth may be equipped with distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; oroverspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; orwhere dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.
81 Separation of Operations Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by:not less than 3 feet orby a partition or wall to reduce danger3 ft8 feet3 feet
82 Sources of IgnitionThere will be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spray area nor within 20 feetSpace heating appliances, steam pipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in the spray area
83 Electrical Class I or Class II, Division 1 Locations The interior of spray booths or roomsThe interior of exhaust ductsAny area in the direct path of spray operations
84 Electrical Class I or Class II, Division 2 Locations For open spraying, all space outside of but within 20 feet horizontally and 10 feet verticallySpray Area20’
88 Process Safety Management ofHighly HazardousChemicalsCFR
89 (a) PurposeThis section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of:Toxic,Reactive,Flammable, orExplosive chemicalsThese releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards
90 (a)(1)ApplicationA process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold quantities listed in Appendix AA process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in (c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds ( kg) or more
91 (a)(ii) ExceptionsHydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel (e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling),If such fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous chemical covered by this standard;Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration
92 Review What is a flammable liquid? What is a combustible liquid? A Class 1A flammable liquid has a flash point of less than?
93 ReviewWhat is the maximum amount of a 1A liquid that can be stored outside of a flammable storage cabinet or room?A 12B fire extinguisher must be located within _______ feet of flammable liquid storage room.
94 Review Spray finishing can be a hazardous activity. True or FalseEach spray booth must be separated by ___ feet or a wall or partition from other operations.Spray booths require ___________ electrical installations.
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