Presentation on theme: "Hazardous Materials Subpart H. Subpart H Standards 1910.101 Compressed Gases 1910.102Acetylene 1910.103Hydrogen 1910.104Oxygen 1910.105Nitrous Oxide 1910.106Flammable."— Presentation transcript:
Hazardous Materials Subpart H
Subpart H Standards Compressed Gases Acetylene Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrous Oxide Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Subpart H Standards Spray Finishing using Flammable and Combustible Materials Dip Tanks containing Flammable and Combustible Liquids Explosives and Blasting Agents
Subpart H Standards Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
Subpart H Standards Dipping and coating operations: Coverage and Definitions General Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations
Subpart H Standards Additional Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations that use Flammable or Combustible Liquids Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations
Definitions Hazardous Chemical Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place
Definition Highly Hazardous Chemical OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would posses toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive properties
Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Definitions Aerosol Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure
Definitions Approved Approved shall mean an approved or listed by a national recognized testing laboratory Such as: –Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or –Factory Mutual (FM)
Definitions Boiling Point Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). The pressure is equivalent to 760 millimeters of mercury (760 mm Hg) Liquid changes into a vapor
Definitions Boiling Point At temperatures above the boiling, the pressure of the atmosphere can no longer hold the liquid in the liquid state and bubbles begin to form. The lower the boiling point, the greater the vapor pressure at normal ambient temperatures and consequently the greater the risk.
Definitions Container Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum
Definitions Closed Container Closed container shall mean a container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid or vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures
Definitions Fire Area Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.
Definitions Flash Point Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.
Definitions Combustible Liquid Combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at above 100°F (37.8 °C). Combustible liquids are divided into two classes: –Class II –Class III
Definitions Class II Liquids Class II liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)
Definitions Class III Liquids Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C). Class III are divided into two classes: –Class IIIA –Class IIIB
Definitions Class IIIA Liquids Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C)
Definitions Class IIIB Liquids Class IIIB liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 200°F (93.3°C). This section does not regulate Class IIIB liquids.
Definitions NOTE: When a combustible liquid is heated to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flash point, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids
Definitions Flammable Liquid Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C) Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids
Definitions Class I liquids are divided into three classes: Class 1A Class 1B Class 1C
Definitions Class 1A Class 1A shall include liquids having flash points below 73 °F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point below 100 °F (37.8°C) Examples: Ethyl Ether, Isopropyl Chloride, Pentane
Definitions Class 1B Liquids Class 1B shall include liquids having flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) Example: Acetone, Gasoline, Toluene
Definitions Class 1C Class 1C shall include liquids having flash points at at or above 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C) Examples: Amyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Xylene
Flash Point 200°F 140°F 100°F 73°F Boiling Point 100°F IAIB IC II IIIA Combustible Flash Point > 100°F Flammable Flash Point < 100°F
Definitions Portable Tank Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation
Definitions Safety Can Safety can means an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring- closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subject to fire exposure
Definitions Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products by ASTM
Definitions Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure is a measure of a liquid’s propensity to evaporate. The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the liquid and, thus, the more readily the liquid gives off vapors
Flammable (Explosive) Limits Flammable Range The range of a combustible vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits. Also, known as the “explosive range.”
Flammable (Explosive) Limits Lower Flammable Limit The lowest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. Below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flame. Also, known as “Lower Explosive Limit or LEL.”
Flammable (Explosive) Limits Upper Flammable Limit The highest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. Above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flame. Better known as “too rich” to burn. Also, known as “Upper Explosive Limit or UEL.”
Introduction The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards
Classes of Some Flammable Liquids CLASS IA CLASS IB CLASS IC Common NameFlash Point ( o F) Ethyl Ether-49 Gasoline-45 Methyl Ethyl Ketone21 Toluene40 Xylene Turpentine95
Program Components Control of ignition sources Proper storage Fire control Safe handling A good plan for safe use of flammable and combustible liquids contains at least these components:
Sources of Ignition Open flames Smoking Static electricity Cutting and welding Hot surfaces Electrical and mechanical sparks Lightning Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include:
Static Electricity Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tank Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vapors Bonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark
Industrial Plants – Grounding Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected
Bonding Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between them Must provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present
Grounding Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire
Ventilation Always provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors.
Storage Fundamentals Identify incompatible chemicals – check the Material Safety Data Sheet Isolate and separate incompatible materials –Isolate by storing in another area or room –Degree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packaging –Separate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other
Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people In office occupancies: –Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipment –Storage must be in: closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, or safety cans, or an inside storage room Inside storage room
Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer Approved container of not more than 5 gallons capacity Spring-closing lid and spout cover Safely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire
Flame Arrester Screen Prevents fire flashback into can contents Double wire-mesh construction Large surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point
Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gal of Class I and/or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gal of Class III liquids permitted in a cabinet Must be conspicuously labeled, “Flammable - Keep Fire Away” Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet
Fire Control Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where flammable or combustible liquids are stored Open flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areas Materials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids
Transferring Flammable Liquids 1.Through a closed piping system 2.From safety cans 3.By gravity through an approved self- closing safety faucet 4.By means of a safety pump Since there is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled, OSHA allows only four methods for transferring these materials:
Self-Closing Safety Faucet Bonding wire between drum and container Grounding wire between drum and ground Safety vent in drum
Safety Pump Faster and safer than using a faucet Spills less likely No separate safety vents in drum required Installed directly in drum bung opening Some pump hoses have integral bonding wires
Waste and Residue Waste drum with disposal funnel Safety disposal can Oily-waste can (self-closing lid) Combustible waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.
Container and Portable Tank Storage This section applies only to the storage of flammable and combustible liquids in drums or other containers not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and portable tanks of less than 660 gallons individual capacity.
Container and Portable Tank Storage Only approved containers and portable tanks may be used to store flammable and combustible liquids Metal containers and portable tanks must meet DOT requirements
Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gallons of Class I and/ or Class II liquids, or not more than 120 gallons of Class III liquids may be stored in an individual cabinet
Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets The standard permits both metal and wooden storage cabinets Cabinets shall be designed and constructed to limit internal temperatures to not more than 325°F when subject to a standardized 10-minute fire test
Design, Construction and Capacity of Storage Cabinets The bottom, top, door, and sides of metal cabinets shall be at least 18 gauge sheet metal and double walled with a 1 ½ -inch air space The door shall be provided with a three point lock and the door sill shall be raised at least 2-inches above the bottom of the cabinet
Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms Construction is to comply with test specifications outlined in NFPA 251 Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with non-combustible liquid- tight raised sills or ramps at least 4-inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4-inches below the surrounding floor
Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms Opening shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors The room shall be liquid tight where the floor joins the floor Electrical wiring for Class I liquids will comply with Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations
Design and Construction of Inside Storage Rooms In each storage room, an aisle of at least 3 feet in width will be maintained Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked Containers will be at least 3 feet from sprinkler heads
Fire Control At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage.
Maximum Quantities The quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed: –25 gallons of Class IA liquids in containers –120 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in containers –660 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in a single portable tank.
Service Stations No smoking or open flames in areas used for fueling, servicing fuel, etc. Conspicuous signs must be posted.
Liquid Transfer If gravity transfer is used, must be through an approved self- closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.
Handling Liquids Flammable liquids shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.
Housekeeping Combustible waste and residue shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles, and disposed of daily
Safe Handling Fundamentals Carefully read the manufacturer’s label on the flammable liquid container before storing or using it Practice good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areas Clean up spills immediately, then place the cleanup rags in a covered metal container Only use approved metal safety containers or original manufacturer’s container to store flammable liquids Keep the containers closed when not in use and store away from exits or passageways Use flammable liquids only where there is plenty of ventilation Keep flammable liquids away from ignition sources such as open flames, sparks, smoking, cutting, welding, etc.
Summary The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards An excellent reference on this topic is National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
Definitions Aerated Solid Powders –Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operation
Definitions Spraying Area Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.
Definitions Spray Booth A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system
Definitions Waterwash spray booth A spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishing material
Definitions Dry spray booth A spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph.
Definitions Dry spray booth A dry spray booth may be equipped with –distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; or –overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or –where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.
Separation of Operations Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by: not less than 3 feet or by a partition or wall to reduce danger 3 feet 3 ft 8 feet
Sources of Ignition There will be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spray area nor within 20 feet Space heating appliances, steam pipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in the spray area
Electrical Class I or Class II, Division 1 Locations The interior of spray booths or rooms The interior of exhaust ducts Any area in the direct path of spray operations
Electrical Class I or Class II, Division 2 Locations For open spraying, all space outside of but within 20 feet horizontally and 10 feet vertically Spray Area 20’
Closed Top/Open Face Booth
Enclosed Spray Booth or Room
Open Spraying Locations
(a) Purpose This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of: –Toxic, –Reactive, –Flammable, or –Explosive chemicals These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards
(a)(1)Application A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold quantities listed in Appendix A A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in (c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds ( kg) or more
(a)(ii) Exceptions Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel (e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), –If such fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous chemical covered by this standard; Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration
Review What is a flammable liquid? What is a combustible liquid? A Class 1A flammable liquid has a flash point of less than?
Review What is the maximum amount of a 1A liquid that can be stored outside of a flammable storage cabinet or room? A 12B fire extinguisher must be located within _______ feet of flammable liquid storage room.
Review Spray finishing can be a hazardous activity. –True or False Each spray booth must be separated by ___ feet or a wall or partition from other operations. Spray booths require ___________ electrical installations.