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© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201
What’s the Big Deal? Flammable and combustible liquids: Are easily ignited and ignite with explosive force Burn readily and give off twice the heat as paper or wood fire Are common materials taken for granted or used carelessly
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Session Objectives Identify a flammable liquid and a combustible liquid Identify the hazards of flammable and combustible liquids and the types of controls to prevent their ignition Follow the procedures to safely store, dispense, and handle these liquids
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Flammable Liquids Flammable—flashpoint below 100˚F (37.8˚C) Isopropyl alcohol Propane Solvents such as acetone, MEK, paint thinner, varnish Fuels such as gasoline Aerosol cans
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Combustible Liquids Flashpoint at or above 100˚F Oil, kerosene Greases and lubricants Oil-based paints
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 What’s the Hazard? Explosion and fire Flammable and combustible liquids vaporize and form flammable mixtures with air when: Exposed to air (containers are left open) Leaks or spills occur Heated or aerosolized
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Degree of Hazard Risk Determined by: The flashpoint of the liquid The vapor’s concentration in the air The presence of potential ignition sources Remember—vapors burn or explode, not the liquid
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Flashpoint The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors at its surface to be ignited Low flashpoint = high flammability Flammable liquids flashpoint is below 100˚F Combustible liquids flashpoint is between 100˚F and 200˚F MSDS shows the flashpoint
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Flammable Range Not all mixtures of fuel and air will burn In order to burn, the fuel/air ratio must be within the flammable range, between the: Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) Image credit: Tom Ouimet
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Measuring Flammable and Combustible Vapors Real-time instruments read out in percent of LEL A reading of 25% LEL indicates the fuel-air mixture is 1/4 of the way to the lowest fuel concentration that can burn Never enter a >25% LEL atmosphere
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Sources of Ignition Some potential sources of ignition are: Lit cigarettes Welding and cutting Static electricity Flammable vapors can travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Sources of Ignition (cont.) Sparks from machinery Internal combustion engines Hot surfaces or machinery Electrical equipment
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Warning Signs and Labels Signs identify areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored and used Individual containers are labeled: DOT label HMIS ® labels National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Read Fine Print on Labels Look for special warnings: Special handling or storage instructions Inhalation hazards—many flammable liquids, such as solvents, are hazardous to inhale Recommend personal protective equipment
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 MSDS—A Primary Source of Chemical Information Special storage and handling precautions Dispensing techniques Flammability limits Reactivity hazards Fire-fighting protective equipment and instructions Hazardous combustion products
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Hazards and Hazard Information—Questions? Do you understand the hazards of flammable and combustible liquids? How to monitor or detect such liquids? Ignitability? How to obtain information about hazards?
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Prevent Fire and Explosion Eliminate ignition sources—prevent flames, sparks, and arcs Eliminate static electricity—ground or bond containers Minimize vapor concentrations Image credit: Tom Ouimet
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Image credit: Tom Ouimet Use Safe Storage Practices No open flames, smoking, sparks, or welding Keep away from sunlight Ventilate well Store oxidizers separately Use secondary containment Return to storage immediately after use
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Dispense Flammable Liquids Safely Ensure primary container or drum is grounded and bonded Transfer liquid with a hand pump or grounded, explosion-proof motorized pump Use spark-proof tools Perform transfer in well-vented area away from all ignition sources
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Handle Liquids and Containers Safely Use only approved containers Close containers when not in use Label containers properly Take only the amount needed for the job and use with adequate ventilation Image credit: Tom Ouimet
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Handle Liquids and Materials Safely Put rags soaked with flammable liquids in approved, closed containers Avoid mixing flammable and combustible liquids Do not weld or torch empty containers
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Eyes—goggles for splash hazard Hands—solvent-resistant chemical protective gloves Body—chemical protective clothing such as an apron or coveralls Lungs—respirator
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Common First-Aid Procedures Inhale vapors–move to fresh air Splash liquid to the face or eyes— flush the eyes/face for 15 minutes Splash to skin—wash skin with soap and water Ingest liquid—consult the MSDS, and call a doctor
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Fire Response Remove yourself from danger Notify others, trigger the alarm Use a Type B or Type ABC fire extinguisher Call for help Continually evaluate for evacuation Don’t fight structural fires yourself
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Spill Response Report all spills immediately and clean up small spills Large spills require a specialized response team Eliminate ignition sources Evacuate the area Help clean up only if properly trained
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Safety Procedures— Any Questions? Do you understand the safety procedures for flammable and combustible liquids? Fire or explosion prevention? Safe storage, dispensing, and handling of liquids? Personal protective equipment? Fire and spill response?
© BLR ® —Business & Legal Resources 1201 Key Things to Remember Flammable and combustible liquids can ignite with explosive force Keep away from ignition sources Follow proper storage, dispensing, and handling procedures Use only approved containers that are properly labeled. Review labels and MSDSs for additional information
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