Presentation on theme: "Storage of Flammable Liquids"— Presentation transcript:
1Storage of Flammable Liquids Subpart H §Rev 2: 07/06/2012The information in this presentation is provided voluntarily by the N.C. Department of Labor, Education Training and Technical Assistance Bureau as a public service and is made available in good faith. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience.The information and advice provided on this Site and on Linked Sites is provided solely on the basis that users will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed herein and are advised to verify all relevant representations, statements, and information.This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina or for any standards issued by the N.C. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the N.C. Department of Labor.
2Objectives In this course, we will discuss the following: 29 CFRIn this course, we will discuss the following:Scope of the standardThe four elements of the fire tetrahedron and how the standard aims to interrupt those elementsClassifying flammable liquidsStorage requirements for liquids covered under the standard(MS Clip Art)
3Flammable Liquids (a) Definitions (b) Tank storage (a) Definitions(b) Tank storage(c) Piping, valves, andfittings(d) Container and portabletank storage(e) Industrial plants(f) Bulk plants(g) Service stations(h) Processing plants(i) Refineries, chemicalplants, and distilleries(j) Scope
4Flammable LiquidsAre compressed gases in a flammable liquid phase covered under 29 CFR ?Photo: MS Clip Art
5Scope of the Standard "Scope" (j)"Scope"This standard applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4ºF (93ºC).The flashpoint of the liquid determines if it falls within the scope of the standard.(MS Clip Art)
6Flammable LiquidsThe standard focuses on liquid temperature by using Flashpoint and Boiling Point to establish a Category Rating.Different categories of flammable liquids pose different hazards and therefore have different rules.(MS Clip Art)
7Fire Tetrahedron and the Standard CombustibleFlammableLiquidFuelIncreasedSurfaceTemperatureHeatSourceProductionofVapor(Tetrahedron illustration from Wiki Commons: (I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide.)(Text boxes and text by Andy Sterlen, NCDOL-OSH Division)OxygenSuitableChemicalReactionFlameEstablishedSustainedCombustion
8Flashpoint Flashpoint Temperature where a enough evaporated fuel vapor is generated from a liquid to support a flash of combustion after a heat source has been introduced.Not fire pointPhoto: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
9Boiling Point Boiling Point (a)(5)Boiling PointTemperature at which the saturated vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to atmospheric pressurePhoto: US Geologic Service
11Classifying Flammable Liquids FlashpointCategoryN/A ( Not Applicable) unless heated for use to within 30°F of its FP, then treat as Category 4FlammableCategory 4Category 3Category 1Category 2< 95° F >Boiling Point199.4°F140°F73.4°F(Illustration by Fleda Anderson, NCDOL-OSH Division)
12Tank Storage(b)(1)(i)Shall be made of steel or other approved nonflammable materialsOther materials are permitted for underground useConcrete tanks (must have a special interior lining) and be designed with sound engineering practicesOperating pressures must never exceed the design pressurePhoto fedcenter.gov
13Tank Storage Metal tanks Filler metals used in tank brazing (b)(1)(ii)[b]Metal tanksShall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methodsFiller metals used in tank brazingShall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000° F and below that of the metal joinedIllustrations: MS Clip Art
14Tank Storage Atmospheric tanks (b)(1)(iii)Atmospheric tanksShall be built in accordance with acceptable standardsNot exceed 2500 gallons, if originally designed for underground but placed above groundNot be used to store liquids at or above their boiling points(MS Clip Art)
15Tank Storage Low pressure tanks and pressure vessels (b)(1)(iv) and (v)Low pressure tanks and pressure vesselsNormal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.May be used as atmospheric tanks.Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.Shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards.
16Tank Storage Outside aboveground tanks between tanks shall not be (b)(2)(ii)Outside aboveground tanksSpacing - (shell-to-shell) between any two flammable liquid above ground storage tanks shall be no less than three feetUnstable liquids - Distancebetween tanks shall not beless than ½ the sum of theirdiameterPhoto: Fedcenter.gov (US Government)
17Tank Storage Outside aboveground tanks (b)(2)(ii)(f)Outside aboveground tanksLiquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - containers next to flammable storage tanks shall have a minimum of 20 feet of separationMust be a minimum of 20 feet between these tanks(Illustrations courtesy of MS Clip Art, with additions from Andy Sterlen, NCDOL-OSH Division)
18Tank Storage Normal and emergency venting (b)(2)Normal and emergency ventingRequired on all above ground tanksEnough venting to prevent vacuum or ruptureRefer to Table H-10 for venting flow ratesIllustration: MS Clip Art
19Results of Improperly Vented Tank Photo: NFPA Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook
20Tank Storage Drainage, dikes and walls (b)(2)(vii)Drainage, dikes and wallsArea surrounding aboveground tanks shall be provided with drainage or be diked to prevent accidental discharge of liquid.If diked, the area should be able to hold the capacity of a full tank.Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquid tight.
21Tank Storage(b)(5)Supports, foundations and anchorage for all tank locationsTank supports shall be installed on firm foundations.Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel.
22Tank Storage Supports, foundations and anchorage in flood zones (b)(5)Supports, foundations and anchorage in flood zonesWhen a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, check established flood stage markings.Liquid level in the tank must never go below the established maximum flood linePlease note: There are many requirements for tanks that are located in flood zones. For more in-depth detail, refer to (b)(5)(vi).
23Tank Storage Ignition sources (b)(6)Ignition sourcesPrecautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors.Includes but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.(Clip Art – OSHA.gov)
24Pipes, Valves, and Fittings (c)The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses.(Clip Art)
25Container and Portable Tank Storage Applies only to the storage of flammable liquids in drums or other containers (including flammable aerosols) not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and those portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons individual capacity.NOTE: Exceptions apply.Refer to standard for more information.
26Container and Portable Tank Storage Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used.Each portable tank shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions.Flammable liquid containers shall be in accordance with Table H-12.
27Containers - Table H-12 Container type Category 1 Category 2 Glass or approved plastic1 pt.1 qt.1 gal.Metal (other than DOT drums)5 gal.Safety cans2 gal.Metal drums (DOT specifications)60 gal.Approved portable tanks660 gal.Table: NCDOL-OSH DivisionNote: Container exemptions: (a) Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer items, when packaged according to commonly accepted practices, shall be exempt from the requirements of § (d)(2)(i) and (ii).
28Container and Portable Tank Storage Storage cabinetsCabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, "Flammable Keep Fire Away"Must be fire resistantContain no more than 60 gallons ofCategory 1, 2, or 3 nor contain no morethan 120 gallons of Category 4 liquidsSpecific requirements for metal and woodPhoto: OSHA.gov
29Container and Portable Tank Storage Inside storage roomsShall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use.If used for Category 1, 2, or 3 (FP < 100°F) liquids, electrical wiring and equipment in “inside storage” rooms shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations. Category 3 (FP >100°F) and Category 4 liquids shall be approved for general use.Provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhaust ventilation system.
30Container and Portable Tank Storage In “inside” storage roomsMaintain one clear aisle at least 3 feet wideContainers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the otherDispensing shall be by approvedpump or self-closing faucet onlyStorage shall comply with Table H-13(Photo courtesy of OSHA.gov)
31Storage Inside Rooms - Table H-13 Fire Protection (1) ProvidedFire ResistanceMaximum SizeTotal Allowable Quantities – Gal./Ss. Ft/Floor AreaYes2 hours500 Sq. Ft.10No4*1 hour150 Sq. Ft.5*2Table: NCDOL-OSH DivisionFootnote(1) Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide, or other system.*Note: These numbers are shown incorrectly in 29 CFR
32Container and Portable Tank Storage Office occupanciesStorage prohibited except if required for maintenance, operation of building and operation of equipment, and then…Shall be kept in closed metal containers stored in a storage cabinet or in safety cans or in an inside storage roomPhoto: MS Clip Art
33Container and Portable Tank Storage General purpose public warehousesRefer to Table H-14 – Indoor container storage, or Table H-15 – Indoor portable tank storageFlammable liquid warehouses or storage buildings
34Container and Portable Tank Storage Storage outside buildingsMaximum of 1,100 gallons of flammable liquidsArea shall be protected against tampering or trespassersArea shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildingsStorage shall comply with:Table H-16 – Outdoor container storage, orTable H-17 – Outdoor portable tank storage(MS Clip Art)
35Container and Portable Tank Storage Fire controlFire control devices shall be available at locations where flammable liquids are stored.Open flames and smoking shall not bepermitted in flammable liquid storageareas.Water reactive materials shall not bestored in the same room with flammableliquids.
36Industrial Plants Incidental storage or use of flammable liquids Quantity (within a building) located outside of a storage room or storage cabinetor in any one fire area:25 gallons of Category 1 liquids120 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 liquids660 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 liquids(in one approved portable tank)Photo: MS Clip Art
37Industrial Plants(e)(2)“Separation and Protection” of the incidental use of flammable liquidsTransferring flammable liquids from one tank or container to another container:Containers shall be separated from other operations in the building by adequate distance or by adequate fire wall.Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills.Adequate ventilation shall be provided.
38Industrial Plants “Handling” the incidental use of flammable liquids Kept in covered containers when not in useNo open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travelTransfer flammable liquids only:Through a closed piping systemFrom safety cansBy means of a device drawing through the top, orBy gravity through an approved self-closing valve
39Industrial Plants Unit physical operations Each building or unit of equipment is accessible from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes.Chemical processes shall be separated from the remainder of the plant by a fire wall of 2-hour minimum fire resistance rating.Ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area.
40Industrial Plants(e)(5)Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided to meet the special hazards of operation and storage.All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition.Photo: Courtesy of firesafety.gov
41Industrial Plants(e)(6)Category 1, 2, or 3 (FP <100°F) flammable liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected(bonded and grounded)Illustrations added by Fleda Anderson, NCDOL – OSH Division
42Industrial Plants(e)(7)All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed in accordance with Subpart S of this part.Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class 1, Division 1.Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions shall be classified Division 2.
43Industrial Plants Housekeeping Spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel.Combustible waste material and residue shall be stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.Keep ground area free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials.
44We are not covering… (f) Bulk plants (g) Service stations (h) Processing plants(i) Refineries, chemical plants, anddistilleriesPhoto from Environmental Protection Agency
45Summarizing Storage Requirements Consider the following:OccupancyCategory of liquids that will be presentEngineering specifications such as fire wall size, fire suppression systems, tank design, etc.Maximum volume restrictionsState, County and Local codesMarking and labeling requirementsHMIS(OSHA.gov)
46Summarizing Storage Requirements The flashpoint determines if a substance falls within the scope of the standard.The flashpoint and boiling point together, determine how substances are stored:Container capacity and spacingMaximum amount per locationThe H-Tables help you determine storage limits, venting capacities, allowable sizes of containers and more...
47Summary In this course, we discussed the following: Scope of the standardThe four elements of the fire tetrahedronand how the standard aims to interruptthose elementsClassifying flammable liquidsStorage requirements for liquids coveredunder the standard(MS Clip Art)
49Flammable Liquid Chart FlashpointCategoryN/A ( Not Applicable) unless heated for use to within 30°F of its FP, then treat as Category 4FlammableCategory 4Category 3Category 1Category 2< 95° F >Boiling Point199.4°F140°F73.4°F
50Class Exercise Liquid Flashpoint (° F) Boiling Point (° F) Category Diesel Fuel #2126320Toluene40231Motor Oil392599Isoamyl Acetate77288Ethyl Ether- 4994Phenol174360NOTE: Use the FP (Flash Point) and the BP (Boiling Point) to determine the Category using the Flammable Liquid Chart.